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Tutorial - Metaphysics, Principles of Evidence

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York University
HUMA 1160
Stanley Tweyman

Tutorial HUMA 1160 Oct.8 , 2013 Order of Study: 1) Metaphysics – E.g. The roots 2) Mathematics – E.g. The trunk 3) Empirical Sciences (based on mathematics) – E.g. The leaves - Metaphysics has to emulate mathematics - Necessary connections between subjects and predicates are analytical statements (one idea expressed) and statements with contingent relationships express immoral truths - Synthetic statements contain two ideas - Descartes uses analysis – method which will pick things apart, and looks for necessary connections - Synthesis – rejected by analysis E.g. The desk is black Everything that is empirical must be rejected from metaphysics - Math uses synthesis, meditations use analysis - Pages 101-103 from Meditations - Analysis: What does morality mean? What does it mean to be human? Reasoning and Senses: - Synthesis utilizes senses (Empirical world) - Metaphysics utilizes reasons; does not depend on senses - There is no conflict between the use of the senses and the first principles in metaphysics The existence of our world and our bodies is rejected. Descartes is coming up with a distinction of our body and our mind. We cannot think of God empirically because there is no God out there. There is no God in nature – (We will learn this from Hume). Descartes wants to find God – not in the body, not in the world, but in the MIND. Descartes uses hyperbolic doubt to doubt the existence of God – doubt everything. There will be an end point. The end point will be a state of indifference at which we can say that we don’t know anything about the world. Representative Realism: - Representations that make up a reality - Five senses cause perceptions - Sense perceptions
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