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Lecture 4

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York University
HUMA 1160
Stanley Tweyman

1.. Enlightenment- Break with past  Thought of learning as autonomous ( didn’t rely on teachings of the church)  No reliance on the church teaching  Nothing to do with organized religion such as Islam, christantiy  Philosophy judges theology  Focus on scientific method ( The study of man) Medieval period-  All truth had to be judged by theology  Theology judges philosophy  Focus was always on theology  theocentric 2 . Causality- make something change it. Destroy it , keep it going  throughout both these periods the notion of a casual explanation goes back to ariostotle  Aristotle gave a exhaustion account of causes there possibly could be  4 types of causes  He said in order to build a house you would need bricks  1. Material cause ( nothing could be built without matter)  2. Efficient cause- a builder  3. Formal cause- a plan ( it gives form to the brick)  4. The final cause – purpose for building it ( pulled)  Because the medieviel belived all of nature was made by God they all thougt what would they see if not Gods purpose in bringing this about. They saw the final cause. Why did God put people on earth?  In the enlightenment focus on the was material cause, they asked themselves what did God take to make this world? The answer was that God created ex nillio ( out of nothing) they said out of nothing comes nothing  If you believe everything has a purpose then scientific investigation must begin with the word “ why “  Whenever your asking a why question you asking for a answer  Everything that exists is there to help Gods plan.  If you believe the efficient causality is most important you will focus on “ How “  Everything that exists is caused by something that came before it, that you believe in a mechanistic view of the world  The essences the world is a machine  The whole view of the world had changed.  If you believe this is a mechanistic world than you must also believe that there is no role in scientific explanation of God 3.  In terms of previous learning there had to be must truth but it had to re-examined  Unlike their medieval counter parts the enlightenment thinkers believe that ne truth were possible. There is a lot that we have to discovered through scientific method 4.  We must rethink who wer are  Re-examination, are we significant or insignifant  From start to finish in the regule the mathematics is not questioned  Error is always human error it is not in the mind.  If errors are elimited you will never make a mistake  FROM RULES OF DIRECTIONS  “ an oject such a as we require which is simple and uncomplicated” what Descartes understands. The claim my shirt is white, the verification can be possible
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