Class Notes (808,131)
Canada (493,086)
York University (33,532)
Humanities (1,633)
HUMA 1170 (32)

The Enlightenment - The Age of Reason (HUMA 1170)

5 Pages
Unlock Document

York University
HUMA 1170
Tanya Taylor- Cherry

The Enlightenment: The Age of Reason Couple of designations such as the age of reason. Rigor should be applied to branches such as political science. Rational capabilities of humans. Civil society under Absolutism:  General discouragement of dissent. Public assemblies and press subjection to suppression. The ways of controlling society were covert and focused on discipline. Other measures involved if not able to self-discipline. No option of open debate. Celebrations subject to authority.  State control and censorship over books.  Scientific and literary periodicals: had to go through governments and bureaucracies to be published.  The first newspapers arose. (Relation in Germany) Politics in neighbouring states were interesting. Spread vastly.  Technical publications  Literacy the rise of alternative “public spheres”: Pamphleteers. Specialized trade.  The Republic of Letters: Philosophers corresponding. Scholarship under Absolutism: Learned Societies: The Royal Society of London and Academie Francaise. Groups that had access to funds and were recognized. The core of the movement was located in Italy and moved definitely. Fredrick the Great/Catherine the Great to Voltaire: Other absolutist rulers. As long as they applied reason to their rule, they thought there was an improvement. The fact that they’re an absolute ruler does not matter in this case. The point that matters is that it doesn’t matter how good the dictator is. Can also be perceived as a transitional state. Englightened Absolutism: Benevolent Despotism Coeval with Enlightenment culture in France and German states due to the growing influence of Enlightenment ideas across Europe. New ideas and old institution. The Enlightened monarch would apply some principles especially rationality in their realms. They would emphasise they were making decisions with reason. The tended to allow some religious toleration, freedom of speech and the right to hold property. Paris is the centre of Enlightenment. Voices of the Enlightenment: Les philosophes Centred in France Key Figures:  Montesquie  Diderot  Voltaire  Rousseau  Kant  Condorcet Most were pro-monarchy with the proviso that the institution must be subject to rational reform. Implication of the Salon Culture/Enlightenment Proto-Feminism Hosted usually in a private residence and usually by women. A key issue in the Enlightenment is the public versus the private. At least 250 salons in 1661. 1652 (Coffee House established in London) Important thinkers. People would discuss ideas of the time. Didn’t matter to who and how you were born. These women were very literate and contributed ideas but were not designated as philosophers. They were facilitators and only discussed philosophy. Salonnieres:  Mme. Geoffrin  Mme. De Pompadour  Olympe de Gouges Rousseau did not see the point of the salons. Voices of dissent within the enlightenment as well. A testing ground and was seen as a way to hasten the progress of ideas. Immanuel Kant (1724-1804): What is Enlightenment? Tutelage: immaturity. The restrictions that limit our free thoughts and ability to use reason. Foregrounds boundaries. Kant focuses on the process of Enlightenment. Designated as an age where the process is still in progress. Curiosity for more knowledge. Question authority.  Not an enlightened age but an Age of Enlightenment.  Benefits of absolute government  Autonomy, self-determination through the use of reason  Public versus Private use of reason and their appropriate spheres  Chief institutions: the press and the education system  Ethos and practice of self-critique as an index of modernity  Cosmopolitanism and Perpetual Peace Denis Diderot:  Wrote the entry on “Natural Law” ( Hunt 35-7)  Man is an “animal that reasons”  The general will  “The laws shoul
More Less

Related notes for HUMA 1170

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.