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Plea for Emigration, French & English - Nov 26.docx

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York University
HUMA 1740

Lecture Outline November 26, 2013 1. The Durham Report - Lord Durham and the recommendations he made in the Durham Report - Act of the Union 1840 - 1781-1841 Upper Canada, all of modern day southern ON and some in Northern Canada - Lower Canada (created by Constitution act of 1781, Southern Quebec and NFLD) - Rebellions of 1837-1838, citizens wanted elected representatives in gov - After rebellions over, British gov sent Lord Durham to Canada to report on the rebellions - In Britain, Lord Durham a reformer that belonged to the Wig party - Over time it became liberal in ideology promoting the supremacy of parliament over the monarchy, free trade, and franchise (right to vote) - 1838: appointed Gov general of upper and lower Canada and asked to give a report on the causes of the rebellion and give ways of avoiding future occurrences - Impressed with the moderate reformers of Canada on the individuals basis of profit not on the basis of monopoly - Advocated responsible gov and wanted to reduce the power of the family compact - To ensure British interests wouldn’t be harmed they recommended Britain control trade, public land – liberal and progressive - Believed Canadian people should have increased influence - Placed control in the colonists themselves - Proposing a form of responsible gov in which they were responsible to the citizens rather than a distant authority like Britain - Recommended self governance on local issues and the governor choose his executive council - More democratic - Undemocratic thinking in terms of French Canada - No respect for reformers in lower Canada, after 8 days said the rebellion was an ethnic issue, struggle of races not principles, drew racial distinctions - Believed French and English two incompatible races in character and temperament and separated by language and way of life - Opinion that French Canadians were backward people partly due to the institutions of France that influenced them - Citizens not allowed to associate with their neighbors in terms of municipal affairs - Constant labor and feudal dependence - No provision made for education of the French people - The French remained the same inactive, unprogressive people - Fake praise – frugal, industrious, sociable, cheerful and hospitable - English Canadians influenced a population that is most enterprising of the country - Active and regular habits - Superior intelligence can’t be disputed - 1 course of action: respecting the rights and existing laws of citizens and of established institutions, give no influx to the concurring peoples. Incorporate the province under the general authority of the central government nd - 2 course of action: treating the conquered territory as one open to the conquers, assimilate the character and institutions of to those of the great empire - Didn’t choose 1 , opted for 2 recommending that the French should be assimilated to British and protestant culture and values in a way that would render them politically powerless - Process would be accomplished by uniting upper and lower Canada into one colony so the legislate assembly would have an English majority - Granted official status to the English language only - Idea of creating a united Canada, arose from the desire to diminish the political power and language of the French Canadians - United Canada never in the interests of French Canada - 1840: British passed the Act of Union which created the united province of Canada - Precursor to confederation - Under act of union two Canada’s to become one united province with one government - Was to keep the institutions established by the constitution of 1781 - Gov would continue to appoint members to the executive and legislative council - Made French Canadians angry because several parts humiliated them - East Canada had a larger population than Canada West but Canada East was allotted the same number of elected representatives as Canada West - Section 41: English was the only official language of the province of Canada - First time England had prohibited French as a constitutional text - Deep wounds in Canada East, called for abolition of Act of Union - Union was unpopular in both places - English fear French domination, and French convinced that the union was a plot to achieve their assimilation 2. The Canada East reformers led by Louis-Hippolyte La Fontaine - Leader of reformers in the East - Objected the race based assimilation Durham outlined - Political parties based on opinion rather than origin - Alliance with Upper Canada – East Canada upset - Britain would not allow lower cnaada as a separate political entity - La fontaine urged French Canadians to take the road towards confederation 3. The Canada West reformers led by Robert Baldwin and Francis Hinks - Large reform majority in Canada’s - Baldwin and Fontaine called upon for reform - Baldwin disapproved of rebellions – advised for Britain to be in control - Members of the executive council selected from the party that had a majority in the elected assembly 4. Irish Immigration, the Fenian movement, and the saga of Thomas D’Arcy McGee - Irish and Black immigration - Early 1840s – large Irish protestant immigrants attached to British institution - Famine in the late 1840s – over 100,000 Irish Catholics ill and poor - Changed the composition of Irish in Canada, now Catholics and Protestants - Thomas D’Arcy McGee – born in 1825 in Ireland, raised Catholic - 1842- immigrated to the US in Boston - Returned to ____ and became very active - Supporter Feenian brotherhood of supporters of the Irish separatist movement - When gov began to suppress he escaped to US - Supported the cause of Irish immigrants - Duty was with fellow Irish people in North America - Canada a better opportunity for freedom for his people - Settled in Montreal
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