Chapter 15 – Europe Transformed: Reform and State building
The Reform of the Sixteenth Century
Protestant vs. Catholic Reform
REFORMATION ON THE 16 TH CENTURY
The protestant reformation is the name given to the religious reform movement that
divided the western Christian church into Catholic and Protestant groups.
-Martin Luther began the Reformation but several earlier developments had set the stage
for religious change.
-Changes in the 15 Century (Renaissance) helped prepare for the upheavals in the 16
-Renaissance preoccupation with political power - Nicolò Machiavelli (1469-1527) an
Italian Prince that wrote “The Prince” (1513) which was an influential work on political
power in the Western World.
-He abandoned morality as the basis for political activity; his ideology was “ends justify
-Impact of printing gave impact to European intellectual life and though.
-Multiple printing with movable metal type. Johannes Gutenberg of Mainz, Gutenberg’s
Bible completed in 1455 or 1456 (First book completed by movable metal printing).
-Printing of books encouraged scholarly research ad desire to attain knowledge (Helped
spread the relindous ideas of refthmation rapidly)
-During the 2 half of the 15 Century Italian Renaissance spread to the European
countries called Christian Humanism or Northern Renaissance Humanism.
-Major goal was reform of Christendom.
-Desiderius Erasmus (1466-1536) formulated and popularized the reform program of
-Christianity should be a guiding philosophy for the direction of daily life, rather than
system of dogmatic beliefs in medieval churches.
-Corruption in the Catholic Church encouraged the reform (1450 – 1520) series of popes
(Renaissance Popes) failed to meet the church’s spiritual needs.
- Were supposed to be spiritual leaders of the Catholic Church but were all too involved
in worldly interests
- Martin Luther (1483-1546) was a monk and a professor at the University of Wittenberg,
lectured the bible.
-Through the study of the bible he came to believe that the humans are saved not by their
good words but through faith in the promise of God, made possible by the sacrifice of
Jesus on the cross.
-The doctrine of salvation or justification because the primary doctrine of the Protestant
-Since the doctrine was arrived to by the study of the bible and namely Luther, the Bible
became for Luther as for all other Protestants the chief guide to religious truth. -1521 they summoned him to recant the heresies he had espoused by Emperor Charles V,
but he refused and in the next few years Luther’s religious movement became a
-John Calvin (1509-1564) was educated in native France.
-Stood very close to Luther, he adhered to the doctrine of justification by faith alone to
explain how humans explained salvation.
-Placed much emphasis on the absolute sovereignty of God or the all-powerful nature of
-The practical psychological effect of predestination was to give later Calvinists an
unshakable conviction that they were doing God’s work on earth, making Calvinism a
dynamic and activist faith.
-He stressed that there could be no absolute certainty of salvation.
-By mid 16 Century Lutheranism had become established in Germany and Scandinavia
and Calvinism in Scotland, Switzerland, France and the Netherlands, and Eastern Europe.
The Catholic Reformation th
-Catholic Church also underwent revitalization in the 16 century, giving it new strength
-3 Chief pillars: The Jesuits, a reformed papacy, and the Council of Trent.
-Jesuits, founded by a Spanish nobleman, Ignatius of Loyola (1491-1556).
-Loyola gathered together a small group of individuals who were recognized as religious
order by the pope in 1540.
-Grounded on absolute obedience to the pope made the Jesuits an important instrument
for papal policy
-Jesuits activity was propagation of Catholic faith among non-Christians.
-Francis Xavier (1506-1552), member of Jesuits, carried the message of Catholic
Christianity to the East. Converted many Asians.
-Pope Paul III (1534-1549) perceived the need for change and took the step of appointing
a reform commission to ascertain the church’s ills.
-Pope Paul III formally recognized the Jesuits and summoned the Council of Trent.
-In 1545 a group of high church official met in Trent; reaffirmed traditional Catholic
teachings in opposition to Protestant beliefs.
-Both Faith and Good works are declared necessary for salvation.
-Belief in purgatory and in the use of indulgences was strengthened.
-Mid 16 Century; The Roman Catholic Church had become one Christian denomination
among many and was able to enter a new phase in history. Chapter 18 – The West on the Eve of a New World Order
Economic Changes and the Social Order
-The 18 Century in Europe witnessed the beginning of economic changes that had a
strong impact on the rest of the world.
-Europe’s population began to grow around 1750 and continued to increase steadily.
-Failing death rate was the reason for the population growth.
-Lowering the death rate was disappearance of bubonic plague, buttho was diet.
-Improvements in agricultural practhces and methods in the 18 Century.
-In European industry in the 18 century, textiles were the most important product and
were still mostly produced by master artisans in guild workshops.