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Ancient Greece.docx

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HUMA 1770
Leo Stan

Lecture #5 Ancient Greece 5/3/2013 6:48:00 AM Geography -Mainland: small valleys and hard to cross, rocky hills; -Mountainous peninsula -Relative isolation  political autonomy + warfare;. The Minoans (2000 - 1200 BCE) -Island of Crete -Strong Naval and trading empire; -Palace structures; -Wealthy and rather peaceful society, albeit protected by a powerful navy; -Writing system: Linear A (undeciphered);; -Collapsed due to external invasion, internal conflicts, and natural disaster. The Mycenaean’s (1600 – 1100 BCE) -Peloponnesus and southern Greek mainland; -Collection of small, independent kingdoms; -Warrior culture; -Art & Architecture: concern with symmetry and order; -Writing system: Linear B (ancestor of ancient Greek); -Violent collapse. The Dark Ages (1200-800BCE) -Ample civilization disaster; *communication ceased; *population plummeted; *cities disappeared; *ability to write was forgotten; -776 BCE: the first Olympic Games Sparta -Geographically isolated; -Exploitive and fanatically militaristic society; -Socio-Political structures  oligarchy: two kings + council of elders (gerousia) ruling over citizens (farmers) & slaves (Helots); -collective-egalitarian mentality; -economically primitive; -philosophy of austere simplicity  no remarkable artistic achievement; -women: raised and trained in accord with the warrior values of the ruling males class. Athens -polis (pl. poleis): community of citizens  shared identity and goals; -the tyrant; -Solon’s reforms:  Debt cancellation  Liberation of debt-related slaves;  Elected officials from upper classes;;  A nsew law court  However, no land redistribution. Cleisthenes:  Father of Athenian democracy  division of all citizens into ten tribes;  established the Council of 500 (legislative body);  Each tribe sent 50 (randomly selected) people to serve on the council  form of representative democracy;  Democracy only for male Greek citizens;  Practice of ostracism (ostrakon)  The hoplite revolution  Lecture #6 The Roman Civilization and the Han Empire 5/3/2013 6:48:00 AM Octivian (31BCE-14CE) became Augustus; Princeps (“first citizen”); Pater patriae (“father of the country”); Imperator (victorious general) -Peace and stability -“mad emporers: Caligula & Nero (bloody policies) -5 good emperors: Nerva, Trajan, Hadriony Antonius Pius, and Marcus Aurelius -merit, humaneness, generosity -wives as exemplars
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