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HUMA 1770
Leo Stan

India Geography -Mountainous north (the Himalayas); -Fertile river plains (Indus and Ganges) -Hills -Tropical Rainforest Indus Valley/Harappan Civilization 3000-1500BCE -Remarkable complexity (the way the city was layed out) -Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro; -System of Writing: 400 Distinct Symbols, still undeciphered; -Daily Life: Farming villages + cities -Politics: a form of Oligarchy (Rich) -Religion: Fertility Deity; -Economy: Agriculture + Extensive Trading; -Art: Pottery, sculpture, clay seals. The Aryans and the Vedic Era 1500 to 500 BCE -Aryans: South-Central Asia; early vision of Sanskrit; -Aryan Culture: Imperialistic; Patriarchal; Deeply Religious -Warrior Mentality: (maha)raja & council of elders. Caste System -Castes (varnas) – ridgidly defined social classes; -Four Castes 1. Brahmins (Priests, Scholars, Philosophers (Intelectuals)) 2.Kshatriyas (Warriors, Politicians) 3.Vaisyas; (Merchants, Farmers that own some land) “Commoners” 4.Sudras; (Servants in the House) “Outsiders” +”the untouchables.” -Castes’ religious ideological foundation; -Advantages: Social Stability + clearly assigned roles + caste related support -Disadvantages: no social mobility + discrimination + no reforms + tyranny of the few + limited innovation; Position of Women -Initial period of quasi-equality (matriarchy?); -Aryan arrival -> subjugation to male values + confinement to the domestic realm (no say in politics); sati; -Positive attitudes: important role within the family; to be treated with respect; fascination with female sexuality Indian Religion/Literature The Vedas (1500-600 BCE), co
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