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Lecture 7

Lecture 7 - *KEY TERMS IN COURSE* & Egypt: Gateway to Africa

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HUMA 1770
William Gleberzon

Lecture 7 1 May 25th, 2011 Key Themes of Our Course  Agriculture and trade o Salt, wheat, oil  Religion = important force winding societies together  Migration = religion is its important impact  Development of cities = a yardstick of a civilization of commerce/interaction between people  Centre of civilization = where people meet and information are transferred  Transportation revolutions, as a way people increase their speed and things become more accessible to them  Societies shared characteristics = expansion of agriculture, developing complex societies, development of more sophisticated government, cultural achievements, intercultural contacts  BANTU-MIGRATION ** as a development of Africa Egypt: Gateway to Africa  Crossroad to pull these 3 continents together  Both a centre and a frontier of Africa power (particularly the east – Ethiopia)  Ptolemaic Empire = Greek ruled over Egypt, until Romans took over The Ptolemaic Rule of Egypt  Every subsequent king is also called Ptolemy Alexandria  Great library in the period before modern world  Half a million books  People who came through it were asked to give up their books, and exchange for unoffered ones  Became a research hub, people came to this library to study to look at these documents/books and learn that material and go back to the Rome community to spread it  Scientific method was developed for the first time  Wealthy = trade from other regions, grew massively, 2 most populated city in the world after Rome  Channel for supplying grain supply  Where people fled to o Immigration o Cultural context o Greek, Egyptian, Jewish  Important hub for philosopher and scientists  Founder of geometry  RESEARCH INSTITUTE came from Alexandria library Alexandria’s Lighthouse  Fell down 500-600 years ago, as a consequence of earthquake Alexandrian Merchandise  A port city The Roman Rule of Egypt  Taken over by Rome, for next few hundreds year Lecture 7 2 May 25th, 2011  Became the major place of grain train shipment Axum and the Axumites  Lived in Kush, South of Egypt  Fertile region at that time (warm weather) – more than 1 group a year  Innovations = damming and irrigation, to bring water to this area of Saharan desert Axum Trade  Hub of export and import Axum Religion  Polytheistic = the pagan gods  King of Axum converted to Christianity o First in Africa to adopt Christianity o Contact of the Greeks and Axumites to allow Christianity to flourish o Greeks which was a Roman Empire, who influenced the Axumites th  Islam rose in 7 century – Christianity survived, but very isolated o Much of Africa (northern/eastern) adopted Islam as a religion The Periplus of the Erythraen Sea  1 century of CE  Record of different ports  Axum = central place and connects all the trade routes o Indian Ocean  Connected through naval travel  Arabic, Jewish, Indian in Axum  Axum = first African civilization to establish its own coin Axum Obelisks Trade Routes  Africa, Asia and Europe tied together from seabased travel route Sub-Saharan Peoples  Linguistic group of sub-saharan = bantu people (in western Africa)  Agriculture society  Had iron  Bantu people started in Western Africa, travelled East, then South, settled there o 500 diff languages in Africa find their root in Bantu  Developed a particular way to do agriculture, which spread all over of Africa Nok Sculpture  Nok = Nigeria (modern day) Sub-Saharan Peoples  People were successful because they adopted to geographies (they were very flexible) Lecture 7 3 May 25th, 2011  Western Africa: adapt climate that were changed as Bantu people moved  Iron mining, gold mining  Sophisticated of metal  Rather than building large cities, they built villages (organized in CLAN or KIN groups) o Political institution Technologies of Sub-Saharan Peoples  Agricultural skills  Copper mining  Salt and gold o Salt = preservation of food o Gold mining Transportation Revolution  Camels (from Asia) – domestication of this animal spread from East of Asia, through Asia, border of Africa, and spread in Africa  Travel through Sub-Saharan desert (obstacle) o Allowed contact to develop Sub-Saharan Africa and Northern Africa (during the CE – the time of Christ) Video: Bantu Trading Network  5000 years ago, Bantu people spread (their language, agriculture skills, culture) o Expanding to tropical region of Africa  Developed unique tropical agricultural techniques  Indigenous germs killing against the European settlers (ex: small pots)  Africa co
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