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Lecture 8

Lecture 8 - Feudalism – Middle Ages

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HUMA 1770
William Gleberzon

Lecture 8 1 May 30th, 2011 What is Christianity?  Came from Greek word “crystal” – anointed one  Spread more quickly than Judaism  Church was led by the pope  Christians believed Peter is the first pope  Pope = leader of Roman Catholic Church  Monotheism  Jesus is the messiah o Died for humanity, resurrected  Prohibition against sins  7 deadly sins o Lust, gluttony, greed, sloth, envy, pride The Barbarian Invasions – Early Middle Ages  Western Europe in disarray / fragmentation  The “Dark Ages”  500: geopolitical fragmentation from Germanic invasion  Barbarians fought with each other  Period 500-1000 = fragmentation and conflicts with numerous people  Barbarians = not Greek, those other guys outside of our civilization o “outsiders”, less civilized  Ruled the fall of Roman Empire  Rural culture, not urban Charles the Great: Charlemagne  Roman Empire was very hierarchical  Church had a huge influence in political affair  Had many attempts to unify Europe  Charles = first attempted to unify Europe o In 800 CE o The pope (huge influence over selection of monarchs of Europe in feudal period) o Got blessing from the pope Feudalism – Middle Ages  Different people in different parts of societies have obligations  Military service and land tenure = ruling classes  1) knightly ruler o Recognition and support from the pope to establish the right to rule  2) warriors  3) peasants o Worked land o Wealth of land is produced by peasants  4) priests/religious figures o Received protection from knights  Economic system = manor system o System of obligation are both economic and political Lecture 8 2 May 30th, 2011 The Feudal Relationship  Lord  Vassal  Land (fief) The Manor System  Medieval Manor  Manor house in the middle (resident of leader/lord)  Beside it has a local church (physical relationship between the 2)  Lands divided in diff sections so you don’t exhaust the land  Problem of Manor System = barely produced wealth at a subsistence level o Village surrounded by arable land Feudal Technological Advance  Lance = fighting on horseback  Stirrup = soldiers fighting on horseback wont fall off  3-field system = leave some field unplanted to let the land recovered  Heavy wheeled plow = use of metal, use wheel to pull  Cattle dung = good fertilizer  Windmill (developed in Persia, makes its way to Europe) o Good way of milling o Mill where there’s no water The High Middle Ages – The Rebirth of Cities  Helped increase to productivity of peasantry  Long distance trade reappeared (ex: Chinese silk)  Creation of new economic activity  Artisans (create useful things from raw material) rise Feudal Monarchs and Popes  William the Conqueror o Last foreigner to conquer England o England taken over by the French  Louis 9h o Saint Louis o Participant in the crusade The Inquisition and Heresy  Religion legitimized the power of rulers  Persecute non-believers  Heretics = non-believers or diff religion doctrine  Inquisition = identify, convict, punish heretics o Long term imprisonment, burning Lecture 8 3 May 30th, 2011 Architecture: Cathedrals  Layout looks like a cross  Glass windows = retrace stories, educating people when literacy was low  Church used spoken words (sermons) and stories reproduced in stained glass windows o The poor man’s bible = stained glass windows o See them in pictures The Crusades and Christian Imperialism  Crusades is not very well remembered during this period o Liberation of the holy land from Islamic rule  Powerful recruiting way  First Crusades = 1095 – captured Jerusalem Transition and Decay  Another European crisis  1) powerful church over the society becomes objected o People ques
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