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Lecture 12

Lecture 12 - The History of Globalization (Protoglobalization c1500)

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HUMA 1770
William Gleberzon

Lecture 12 1 June 15th, 2011 The History of Globalization (Protoglobalization c1500)  P.57 of Stearns  Major transformation = change in global geography (p.58) or change in awareness about human geography  Caused by: “the new world” – the American continent  The old world = Afro-Eurasian axis  People who lived in Americas and Oceania were unaware of the Europeans, Africans, Asians and Arabs Map of World 1531  People’s sheer knowledge of how the world is connected Map of World 1616  Consciousness: people had no clue they were connected geographically The Ottoman Turks  Osmanli Turks (Ottoman) = cousins of the Mongols  Muslims (emerged from Anatolia) – highland of modern day Turkey  Began to move for 150 years  Conquered Constantinople in 1453 (Roman Empire)  renamed it Istanbul  Byzantine Empire became the Ottoman Empire o Cut Europeans off from the overland route to the East (to get silk/spices from the Asia) The Silk Road  Routes from Europe, across the land, into China and further down to the south to get silk and spices Europe in 1500  Ottoman Empire began expanding after took over Byzantine Empire The Reconquesta of Spain 1492  Spain was unified under the Christian King and Queen  Last of Muslim kingdom (controlling Spain) were kicked out, returned to North Africa Ferdinand and Isabella  King and the Queen The East Indies of Indonesia Christopher Columbus  tried to convince others to sail West, go around, then you can get to East Indies  educated; knew the world is round Vasco da Gama  sailed west, then south, swings around then go all the way to India  sails back the same way Lecture 12 2 June 15th, 2011 The Portuguese Empire  trading station throughout Africa, India, Asia  described as Crown capitalism / globalization  Pothuguese Monarchy controlled these trade stations  16 century = Portuguese never controlled more than 50% of spice trade  Excluded from the Red Sea by Muslim merchants based on kinship and religion Before Columbus  Other non-Aboriginal people who travelled to Americas before Columbus (myths/stories): o Aliens from outer space o Egyptians o Polynesians o Israelites o Irish Monks o Vikings o European Fishermen o The Chinese Admiral Zheng He of China  Muslim, led 7 Chinese western maritime expeditions  Sailed within the Indiana Ocean and the Red Sea Christopher Columbus  Made 4 voyages of “uncover” between 1492-1505  He never knew where he was until his dying day  He thought he was in the Indies, so called the people there Indians (aka the Indigenous)  Uncovery = he didn’t discover, it was always there (the New World existed and was populated before the coming of the Europeans) Amerigo Vespucci  First European to realize that a new continent had been uncovered  Traveled to the new lands after Columbus and may have landed in Brazil  Called th new territory “Amerigo’s land” – became slurred into “America” Martin Waldseemuller’s World Map 1507 The Division of the Non-European World (Including America)  1493: Pope Alexander VI divided non-European world between Spain and Portugal  Spanish expored most of islands of the Caribbean and conquered the Aztec Empire in Mexico (1519) The Spanish Empire  Spanish silver coins became the basis of trade between European countries and China  17 century: more Mexican pesos (currency) circulated in China than in Mexico because of their standard silver content  Spain and China connected through trade in the Philippine Islands (30000 Chinese merchants meeting in Philippine Island) Lecture 12 3 June 15th, 2011  Spanish silver coin could be cut into Pieces of Eight (8 sections) – a Spanish Dollar  Coin can be used in half (4 reales), quarters (2 reales) or a single (8 reales) The Pacific Region (Oceania) – Asturalia and New Zealand  Europeans didn’t know Pacific Ocean existed  Until Spaniard Vasco Nunez de Balboa uncovered it in 15113  Ferdinand Magellan’s expedition for Spain in 1519-1522 = first expedition to sail from the Atlantic Ocean into Pacific Ocean (the named it “peaceful sea” by Magellan) o From Spain, leaving Atlantic, hugging the coast of S America, across Pacific Ocean, then finally to Philippine  Privateers (commissioned by royal governments and funded by a consortium of wealthy individuals in each country to raid the Spanish treasure ships and colonies)  Pirates = kept the loot and shared it among themselves  Privateers were given a letter of marquee and reprisal = gave them immunity from prosecution by the government of their homeland The Other European Nations  British didn’t establish their first permanent colony until 1608  Not until 100 years later, that other nations began to sink roots into the New World  They focused on privates Francis Drake 1543-1596  As a slaver (on ships from Africa to the Americas)  1570s: received commission from QEI as a privateer (hired to steal from the Spanish)  Attacked Spanish ships and settlements in the Caribbean  Knighted by QEI after The Dutch  1648: won independence from Spain after 80 years of war  1600: first established successful non-Spanish colony on the island of St. Eustatius  Beginning of penetration and colonization of the region by the other European nations Impersonal Capitalism  Development of national East and West Indies companies represented development of a new economic organization  International joint-stock impersonal (bureaucratic) profit-oriented capitalist company, which was prepared to use armed force and didn’t depend on kinship and regional ties for trading (Stearns p.70) St. Kitts  1624 = French and British joined forces to defeat the Carib Indians who lived on St. Kitts (very tiny island)  After they won, they fought each other for its possession  1783: taken over by British  Fought for WHITE GOLD = sugar Sugar  Atlantic slave trade = the “triangular trade” Lecture 12 4
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