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Lecture 2

Lecture 2 - Modern History / Prehistory

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York University
HUMA 1770
William Gleberzon

Lecture 2 1 May 4th, 2011 Modern History/Prehistory  Modern History = 1500 century o Egypt, China  Prehistory = 5 million years o Apes, monkeys (our relatives) o Developed into the latest form of Homosapien sapien (single species)  Most believed origins are devine (some creation happened many years ago – recorded in religious texts) o Replaced in science (evolution – evolved from earlier forms) o Transformed into what we are now (resulted from interaction of one another and environment)  Separate us from mammals: use of tools Periods in Global Human History  Old stone age (Paleolithic)  Neolithic o Agriculture as principle form of supporting themselves  Ancient o Beginning of civilization to 500 BCE (rise of newer forms of civilization like Greece, Rome)  Classical  Medieval (Middle Ages)  Modern Early Human Development: Hominids  We shared common ancestors of them (we are just relatives)  Human = homosapiens came out of Africa and migrated (to Europe, Asia, Africa, America, Australia) o Prior to migration, hominids migrated too (which existed before human) Lucy  Early hominid discovery = aphaeresis (homophaebien)  Found in Africa  Part of Australopithecus line --- became us down the row  Oldest common ancestors we have  “first mother”  Existed 4-5 million years ago  Found in Ethiopia (skeleton)  Walked upright, but had smaller right than modern Homo Floresiensis (hobbits)  Migrated to Indonesia well before human did  This species is very small – they are named Hobbits by archagologists  Less than half the size of human Neanderthals  Co-existed with homophabien  Killed off by humans? Or reproduced (integrated) with humans and changed as both species  They disappeared completely  Ex: from Valley of Germany and fossils were found of this species Lecture 2 2 May 4th, 2011  Found throughout Europe and Middle East  History of tendency of MIGRATION Cro-Magnon  Lived in Europe, earliest humans that lived in Europe Geography and Ecology  How do you survive from a particular environment? o Adapt to environmental challenges will be likely to survive and reproduce o Those cant will die off  70000 years ago – we almost got wiped up (volcano eruption) o 6-10 years winter and almost killed all humans, but were still able to reproduce after  Humans succeed = ability to control the environment  Interactive and relationship with the nature Race and Adaptation  Simple adaptations to environment as opposed to inherently different (we are all able to do the same thing)  Throughout modern history, race is divided to dominate people in one group to another Race and Culture  Culture = specific aspect of human interaction (religion, language, custom, tradition)  One human race (homo sapiens) – no more branch  Subdivisions “races” don’t physically exist o We reproduce with each other o Pure race = important to Nazis, incompatible with historical record o Races interact over time o race as quality difference isn’t scientifically acceptable Migration  FIRST ESSAY ASSIGNMENT  General movement of 1 locality to other o Long distance with small/large groups  Island of pacific = colonsians (last place to be migrated)  WHY DO WE MIGRATE? o Survival for food o Environment change (moments of warming, ice ages) Why Migrate?  Ice Age o Cuts off people’s ability to hunt and survive  Impact of long ice age? o Physically changes the planet (creates lakes) o Ocean level falls (by 300 feet) o Areas of land become available – enough land to get across it o Ability to walk from the continental masses to another place o Japan developed 70000 years ago – temporary land bridge that allow people to cross there Lecture 2 3 May 4th, 2011 o Physical geography of earth motivated human migration (A BIG PART) o Opening up of the land bridges to lead people to go from places Paleolithic Age (Old Stone Era)  First 5 million years of hominid ancestors  Fulfilling physical human needs to vibal needs  Our ancestors began tool making – use found objects (stone) and later (metals) to cutting objects / useful devices for making their lives manageable  Hunter-gatherer society = gathered nuts, vegetable/fruits, animals, fish  99% time we were hunter gatherer = small communities, lived off the land o Limits the size of population o Population of globe = less than 5-10 million people  1% time – agricultural societies  Social relations are based on cooperation o Developed ability to cooperate into hunt and work together to increase efficiency  Food of the land was shared, equal to the community  There was some type of division o Female = gathering (close to the kids) o But no hard division between female/male that came from early of agricultural society  Religion? o Religious thought/feelings predates history/written record o Concepts/beliefs of gods or spiritual beings, relations to those things regarded as holy/sacred o Developed non-verbal of communicating themselves in communications o Produce statues, cave paintings, monuments Statues: Venus of Willendrof  25000 years old, found in Austria  Fertility statue?
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