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Lecture 3


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HUMA 1770
William Gleberzon

Lecture 3 1 May 9th, 2011  Presentation = short outline + bibliography (main points)  Written essay = migration o Consequences of migration o Civilization = societies that we study from today on (1500CE) o Write in MLA style o Short essay 5-6 pages, research paper  Mesopotamia = region, not a civilization  Egypt = region and a civilization  Greece  The Hebrews Mesopotamia  City based civilization  Modern day Iraq now  Map (5000 years ago) = sedimentation over time, amount of area of cultivation increases  Flourished because of geography (weather, climate)  Large rivers (Nile) flooded, left rich deposits (alluvium – most fertile regions)  “hydraulic” empires = organize themselves to use/control the water  Store water and dig canals = control over their crops  Result of these technological development = develop surpluses, organized religion, monumental structures  Constant warfare between regions  Became wealthy so become the target of the less rich civilization  Warka (3100BCE) = existence of written tablets (oldest form of writing to human) o Taking record of the wealth of the society (amount of grain, how livestock are divided) o Used writing as sacred script, poetry, literature (used later) Ur  A city  Subscript religion development  Abraham = Hebrew Prophet, migrated from this place  Huge influence of religion Great Ziggurat of Ur  Rose from flood planes  4000 years old, S othIraq  Early settlement in 5 millennium  Centre of “Samarian” empire  Invented wagon wheel (transport), plough to make agriculture, cast objects in bronze/copper (metal working), first form of writing  Arithmetic (add, subtract etc)  Samarians were first to write, then Akkad  Developed first body of law o Writing the rules of society (transgression? Punishment) Stele of Hammurabi  Placed a large marble column on which the law is written on Lecture 3 2 May 9th, 2011  Law = regulate behaviour of people / society / community  Basis of the idea that human behaviour can be regulated to protect - in the eyes of ruler – the common wealth / conflict  Credited for first literature – written warfare conflicts  Developed stepped pyramid Empire of Akkad  Conquer Samaria, not called Mesopotamia  Samaria  Akkad  Babylon (1800 BC / 4000 years ago)  Business law, personal, injury  Set of laws are harsh in our eyes = life for life punishment  Diff laws for diff classes (slaves / masters) Assyrian Empire  Powerful violent aggressive state, took over Mestopotamia, all of Egypt  Developed new military technology o Battery rams that break down stone walls  Overthrown by alliance of other people (formed Babylonian society) o Had negative influence on Hebrews The Hanging Gardens of Babylon  Only had description of it in literature; just an artist conception  No actual proof it existed, but there are written accounts of it  Babylon overthrown by Persian empire o Cyrus the Great = lead armies, overran Babylonian empire  Then overthrown by Greeks (Empire of Alexander) Excavating Mesopotamia Map of Old Kingdom Egypt  River based civilization  Nile civilization = follow the longest river in the world; useful in terms of providing alluvium o Rich nutrients that make agriculture productive  Dynasty of Egypt = families that ruled over it o Pharaoh who ruled over this geographic area  Annual flooding = fertile soil, danger to human settlement  Damps, irrigation channels  Niles from high land of Africa to Mediterranean (smooth, no waterfall)  Prevailing wind existed; blow from the North o They could figure out how to make sail; but to sail back up needed more power o Allowed trade along with the river Egypt  Importance of Nile = trade  Early Dynastic Period  Old Kingdom Egypt o Fruitful period of architecture of religion Lecture 3 3 May 9th, 2011 o Where pyramids were built  The Middle Kingdom o Rapid change of dynasty  The New Kingdom Egyptian Dynasties  Not tested  Long continuity of Egyptian civilization The Great Pyramids at Giza  4500 years ago Great Sphinx at Giza  From Old Kingdom Dynasty  Sphinx = lion body, human head (mythical creature)  Symbol of royal family  Numerous gods they worshipped (most gods recorded in Egypt)  20000+ gods along the Nile worshipped  King as Pharaoh – divine  Old kingdom is very hierarchical o There were peasants as slaves  Women had some power; but not too much  Wealth was passed in the mother side of the family  Famine and drought = main factors that caused Old Kingdom collapsed Tutankhamun  Middle Kingdom  Period of expanded trade into Mediterranean region (Syria, Mestopatima)  Continued Phararoh as ruler  Hikesaws: Outside dynasty took over, but overcame by Egypt again o Babble axes, advanced forts, bronze  Kuchikes took over Hikesaws and then Egypt took over again  New Kingdom in the city of Thebs o Most powerful of Egyptian dynasties o Used bronze weapons to take military campaigns  1922 discovered treasure of artefacts (gold objects)  1 millennium (after 1000 years) = susceptible by outside invaders th o Persians (took over in 6 century by Cyrus) o Greeks (under army of Alexander) o Romans (make Egypt a province) Map of Ancient Greece  Loose collection of city state, tied together by trades, but also isolated from each other  Earliest Greek civilization = Minoan Lecture 3 4 May 9th, 2011 Minoan Civilization  Greeks of Crete  Traded with E Midterrerean and Egypt  Society we don’t know much about  Gaps in our knowledge of it  Oldest Greek civilization  First society to have written script (shortly after Samarians)  Materialistic society  Arts and craft, pottery, jewellery, sculptures  Collaspsed overnight because of natural disas
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