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Lecture 5

Lecture 5 - Globalization in World History

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HUMA 1770
William Gleberzon

Lecture 5 1 May 16th, 2011 Chapter 2 – Globalization in World History  4 major Eurasian civilizations  Rome, Persia, India, China  Powerful civilization developed connections between the entire land mass  Height of Roman Empire, trade took place from Pacific ocean to Atlantic ocean  Chinese didn’t trade far outside their borders, as a form of protection from invasion  Nomadic people traded with Chinese Persia  1. Archaemenids o Taken over by Alexander the Great and his army o 3 most wellknown of Persian Emperors  After fall of Achaemenid dynasty… Persian Dynasties Continued  2. Seleucids (The Greek) o For 75 years  3. Parthians o For 500 years  4. Sassanids The Persian Empire  Founded by Cyrus  Now the Middle East  Large land base empire  Made into northern Greece, but weren’t successful in battle  Cyrus created this huge empire by overthrowing the Meets who previously ruled this area, and conquest of Lybia  Great treasure to capture  Overthrew the Babylon. Jews captured were released as Cyrus’s success and allowed to resettle  Darius failed to conquer Greece, and made enemy, whom eventually fought against them  Collected taxes for the emperor  Provided soldiers for army  Control maintained by military, by troops, and spying network Video  Darius the Great – conqueror of Egypt  515 BC, built massive stone highway, connect to India – “the royal road”  Determined to build a gateway in Northern Africa  Built canal of Mediterranean to Red River  Connect Red River to Nile River  City state of Greece  Lined boats as bridge, 70000 people marched to Greece and attack them  The canal that links to Red River and Mediterranean o To facilitate trade o Weren’t maintained forever over time whenever empires fall because of sand from desserts Lecture 5 2 May 16th, 2011 Persepolis: Apadana  A meeting hall Persepolis: Detail  Darius tried to again to conquer Greece but was again unsuccessful  Regular revolts Zoroaster  Influence of other religion  Still practiced today in central asia and parts of india  First monotheistic religion  Zoroastrianism – the concept of good and evil o Huge influence on Christianity o Official religion of Achaeminid dynasty The Seleucid  Founded by soldier of Alexander  After his death, the empire was divided in 4 parts o One got Egypt  250 BCE became small and weak, under the influence of other people  Major accomplishment in this dynasty = Greek culture, influencing architecture and art The Parthians  Warrior of the Eastern Caspian Sea, took over Seleucid  Fought several war with Romans for the Middle East  Weren’t able to push the Romans back  Ultimately didn’t challenge Rome any way after The Sassanid Empire  From border of Turkey  Pressed in by one side of India, and one side of Rome  Fought against the Roman again, but were weakened by the wars Rome  Similarities of Roman Architecture of Architecture of Washington  19 century buildings in Washington is influenced by development of classical period  Roman republican empire lasted 2000 years Video  Civil war = feature of growth of city  Free exchange of ideas  Engineering imported from other cultures  Tunnels, large walls  Sewer system = 25000 years after its constructed (STILL WORKS) o Drain marsh lands from topland Lecture 5 3 May 16th, 2011  The Forum = ancient Rome downtown district  2 modes of transportation o Through the countryside on horseback, walking, or in cart, or by ship  Roads didn’t exist before Roman Empire  Roads are dead straight, no curves  Caesar  Augustus, Rome’s first emperor  Under Augustus, furthest empire with highways  Rome’s engineer = build bigger better strong o Water proof concrete o Can build underwater o Have piers in water (bridges)  1 century AD, Rome = superpower  Expand outward and look inward, to improve quality of life  In capital city, stream of fresh water from mountain spring miles away  Aqueducts = constant stream of water o Live cleanly and comfortably in urban city  Claudius who had the greatest influence on Rome’s water supply o Considered as invalid and hidden from public eye (before he was the emperor) o Hard of hearing, had a limp o Seize power o 41 AD, most royal family were murdered o He was spared, after he was found behind the curtain o Conquered Britannia (Caesars failed to do to) o Built 2 aqueducts, increased amount of water flowing into Rome o Arch = permit spans, change spatial conception of Roman architecture o Built around wooden framework o Each aqueducts into 3 holding tanks  Emperors / public bath o Every home 1 2 century AD, had running water Early Rome  Greeks had colonies in this area  Romilus kills his brother, consolidate power and became ruler of central Italy  Rome is successful in growing because it welcomed immigrants o Learned so much from them o Became haven for refugees and those who are kicked out from another place The Republic  Monarchy overthrown, not ruled by monarch  Not Athenian democractic  Republic = government of the wealthy, leaders o
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