- Justice and Injustice
- He breaks it down into two different kinds of justice: particular justice and universal
- Universal justice - standards and conditions which are accepted as common laws
between man, things which everyone will hold as true, lawful and fair.
- Particular justice - seems to be more on a person-to-person basis, spreading the idea
that people need to be fair with one another
- unjust man is grasping, he must be concerned with which prosperity and adversity have
to do, which taken absolutely are always good, but for a particular person are not always
good. Now men pray for and pursue these things; but they should not, but should pray
that the things that are good absolutely may also be good for them, and should choose
the things that are good for them.
if a man makes gain, his action is ascribed to no form of wickedness but injustice.
their proportion remained equal, OR BETTER, after a mutual redistribution of different goods.
For example:- If a very rich man with a very high political status (who is in no way "equal" to a
person with whom he deals in a redistribution) receives a product or the labor of a poor man
with low status (thus the other person is unequal in both wealth and power to a rich man) and
pays him both a FAIR PRICE (for his good or labor) and also recommends that GOOD
WORKMAN to his other rich and or powerful friends, so that he can receive more WEALTH for
his labor or products, isn't it true that the wealthy man is less wealthy and the poorer man more
wealthy after the redistribution --- and both receive different GOODS in exchange for each
Distributive justice has 4 terms:- At least 2 different people and 2 different goods, where both
persons have equal rights in a state, but neither, has equal status or equal power, or equal
money, or equal virtue or equal abilities --- nor even equal or identical functions in a state. If
person A has twice as much than person B, then the “goods” basket should be twice as much
And if the poor man is also recommended to other wealthy persons for his GOOD WORK or
GOOD PRODUCT they may also give him their GOOD MONEY in exchange for his GOOD
labor or product. Hence, both his status and his wealth are proportionally increased according to
his good labor or good product. None of them remain "equal" after such just exchanges. Both
unequal "sides" are benefited with different goods.
Retributive justice (involving penalties and restitutions for crimes or offenses or lapses in
fairness) and distributive justice (making sure exchanges of goods and services are fair or
equitable). Note that these both involve finding the right degrees or right amounts to achieve
balance - connection with the idea of a mean or middle point. Restoration may well not be
enough for the betrayed person and they may seek revenge of some sort, whereby they can feel
the satisfaction of seeing the other person suffer in the way that they have suffered. Revenge can
be many times more severe than reparation as the hurt party seeks to make the other person
suffer in return.
Rectificatory - We speak of the "justice system" as attempting to "rectify" wrongs through
punishment/restitution/deterrence. Whereas justice in the distributive sense is geometric, in the rectificatory sense it is arithmetic.As Aristot