solomon wrote the song of songs, ecclesiastes and proverbs.
kingdom of israel dated 1020 B.C.E. to 922 BCE
1. The Synoptic Gospels
C THE GOSPEL GENRE
general information about the gospels:
1. WRITTEN 35-75 YEARS AFTER JESUS’ DEATH
2. all this is on a handout
The stages of Oral Transmission
B 3 Ways it changes content
1. Oral transmission always involves clarification
2. Oral transmission involves memorizing form
3. Oral transmission from memory means random access. (you’re not going to get
everything, more random)
1. Transmitted message much later written down
2. Individual episodes gradually combined
3. Produced an interpreted view Jesus (kerygma): Greek term translated as
THE SYNOPTIC PROBLEM
A AGREEMENT IN WORDING
1. Recorded history - not satisfactory explanation
i. when they do not agree?
ii. Aramaic to Greek: translation odds
iii. What about John’s version?
synoptic is about Matthew Mark and Luke, how the three of them fit together, they use
similar words, tell similar stories. almost word to word similarities in places. as
opposed to John which is quite different.
i.e. Matthew 9:6, Mark 2:10-11, Luke 5:24
Matthew and Luke are writing at about the same time, but in different countries and to
D THE PRIORITY OF MARK
1. Argument from length
-97% Mark found in Matthew
-88.4% Mark found in Luke
-44.4% Matthew not found in Mark
-52.9% Luke not found in Mark
1. Argument from Grammar
i. Colloquialisms and incorrect grammar. (Mark seems to have come first because
it is less well written than Luke for example)
iii. Redundancies (213 examples!)
Mk 1:32 “That evening at sundown”
Mk 2:18 another example.
2. Jesus’ power.
i. jesus is not as powerful in Mark. i.e. Matthew 8:16, Mark 1:34, Luke 4:40 (referring to how many of the sick he
cured, respectively all, many. any of the sick were cured.)
more of the same Matthew 12:15 “and he cured all of them” Mark 3:10 “for he had
cured many” Luke 6:19 “and he healed all of them”
Matthew 13:58 “And he did not do many deeds of power there, because of their
Mark 6:5-6 “And he could do no deed of power there except that he laid his hands
on a few sick people and cured them and he was amazed at their unbelief.”
Why would they do this, mark was written first, why did Matthew and luke amp it up a
bit? to convince people, sell the religion. Mark is not as committed in convincing
Mark knew that his audience didn’t know the traditions of the hebrew, aramaic
traditions. this assumes that the audience is probably a gentile audience.
THE FOUR SOURCE HYPOTHESIS
similar to documentary hypothesis of the first testament. This diagram is in H and Y.
Matthew took from Mark, Q and his own material. Luke took from mark, Q and his own
Mark really emphasizes the necessity of suffering. in none of the traditions that got
passed down was the idea that the messiah has to be a martyr.
Matthew was a Pharisee, so he knew a lot about the law and the TaNaK we know this
because of how much he relates Jesus’ life to the aforementioned hebrew book. there
are lots of quotes form the old testament.
A AUTHORSHIP: WHO WROTE LUKE?
1. Tradition: A Physician, a companion to Paul
The Anti-Marcionite Prologue (160-180 CE)
Luke a Syrian of Antioch, doctor for profession, was the disciple of the Apostles. At a
later date he was the disciple of Paul until the death of the latter. After having served
the Lord without fault and never having married, he died full of the holy spirit. At
Boeottia aged eighty-four. as Gospels had already been written by Matthew in Judea
and by Mark in Italy, Luke, under the impulse of the Holy Spirit, wrote his gospel in the
redion of Achaia, In the prologue he shows that the other gospels