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Buddhism, Lay Meditation, and Nun Movements lecture

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HUMA 1865
Aviva Goldberg

Three issues: - chain\ging roles for lay people” meditation - changing roles for women: lay nuns and Bhikkhunis looking at issue of aesthetic roles for women (officially ordained, or lay nuns; movements in th 20 century to rethink gender issues) - Buddhism in politics: nationalism LAY MEDITATION - Pre- modern thervada Buddhist societies were based around the major institutions - King provided a stable country, built monasteries and pagodas and donated to the monksking was - Sangha monks: preserved and taught the dharma buddh’s teachings and advised the king on being morally unjustmonks would announce or denounce the kings based on karma/morals/social entities MODERNITY: - with colonialism there is a decline in he authority of both of these institutions - lay people come to take a much more active role in sponsoring Buddhist organizations, monls and preserving Buddhism - lay people come forward, set up associations/pagodas, and they become central actors LAY MEDITITATION - starting from the early 20 century, new movements arise to promoting lay people learning meditation - no longer does one have to renounce your worldly life to begin meditation to approach nirvana - at the middle point of enlightenment, there is this idea that in the middle, Buddhism will flourish…democracy comes about, rise in wealth and technology creates idea that everyone can achieve enlightenment - the form of meditation most practiced by lay mediators is called Cipassana— insight meditation - it begins with practices of breathe control and moves on to observing the arising and passing away of sensations to gain insight into impermanence - vipassana meditation became popular not only in buddhism countries but quickly spread in Europe and North America - S.N. Goenka, a hindu born in Burma/Myanmar, has spread Vipassana meditation as a practice that he says transcends religion NEW ROLES FOR WOMEN: - Buddha ordained nuns as well as monks, but only with reservations - Numerous lay women as well as nuns achieved enlightenment in the Buddha’s time BHIKKUNIS - monks are known as Bhikkus and nuns are Bhikkunis - to ordain a nun you must have a sufficient number of ordained monks and nuns th - in the 11 century CE, there were no longer enough nuns in Theravada countries to ordain more nuns LAY NUNS: THILA SHIN - the difference between keeping 8 precepts or 10 precepts, means that often nuns collect money or uncooked food.
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