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Lecture 9

Lecture Nine intro to religion

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York University
HUMA 1865
Aviva Goldberg

Islam II:  • Jihad does not mean terrorist • It literally means “to struggle” which can refer to anything i.e. temptation, sin, etc these are peaceful means of jihad, does not necessarily mean hostile. • You can also carry it out with your tongue, or your heart, with a pen and finally with weapons. So it doesn’t HAVE to be militant. This has been translated to war • Also called kital. It has been just stereotyped to this. • Islam is not a pacifist religion • Islam had views about when war is justified or unjustified • Then when the war is carried out, there are laws about who you can attack. i.e. combatants and non-combatants (women, children, religious clarics) • Then there’s laws about the prisoners of war which cannot be killed but exchanged, ransomed, etc • Laws about spoils of war, how are they to be collected and what is included and not included? • These are all a part of the Quran • Sometimes there a difference of opinion on these decisions • Jihad should not be equated with terrorism or unjustified aggression. Because different sects of islam have different opinions on what is justified and isn’t • It is not an accurate picture of religion if you ignore minority views and just focus on the mainstream ones • Hadith: un-recited revelation o Means anything news o Hadith reports are usually anecdotal o Passive approvals of the prophet lead to permissions o Sayings, actions, tacit approvals o Very detailed rules about investigating narratives and narrators o All narrators involved in accounting prophets words, actions, etc were greatly investigated and written about especially to see which are authentic o The chain of narratives is called isnad and the text is matn o Very few things were written in prophets life time, most began within 100 years of his life o They were all investigated and they became known as the canonized books which there is six of in Sunnis and four in Shiites o Along with Quran this is taken as a source because the Quran repeatedly emphasizes that Muslims are bound to obey the prophet this is called Sunnah o But Sunnah now means practices instituted as religious practices by Muhammad o And these are found in the Hadith • Quran and the Sunnah: relationship o Sunnah being the Hadith o It explains, expands, supplements, and sometimes overrules the Quran o Becomes sometimes he came up with fresh instructions so modifies it o It is a smart part of the Muslim ritual (the Quran)- only says t
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