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HUMA 2740 (25)

chapter 12 Film television and media notes

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HUMA 2740
Joseph Kispal- Kovacs

Chapter#12 NETWORK DOMINATION OF US TELEVISION (1959-1971) -1959-1971 saw the big 3 televisions networks (NBC, CBS, ABC) experience their greatest level of power influence -single sponsor system was replaced by one using multiple sponsorsbegun moving from single sponsors in mind 1950sweakened the power of advertisers over the networks -this was also the period in which the networks also produced or co- produced most of their own programmingcreated a vertical integration, not seen in the media since the big 5 movie studios of the 1930s and 1940s -also owned or co-owned these programs as a result controlled their distribution in syndication -owned/co-owned 91% of all the programs in primetime in 1965, began buying local television stations in the largest cities, thereby guaranteeing them an outlet for the network feeds the vast wasteland -big3 networks were criticized from a number of different corners for the poor quality of their programming -the new chairman of the FCC - Newton Minnow best expressed this general dissatisfaction in his speech he openly threatened the television station owners by saying that he would consider not renewing their licenses if they did not clean up their acts -moves by minnow opened up the possibility of further development of non-commercial broadcasting funding for new television station construction(more channels available) and ordering television set manufacturers to carry both VHF and UHF receivers in all new television sets(allows more channels to be picked up in a single city) -commercial broadcasters responded to these criticisms by trying to do more of what Minnow had liked about American televisionthey began producing more documentariesin order to calm critics who railed against the poor intellectual quality of most TV programming -prime time documentaries flourished in this environment until the end of the 1960s -nightly news programs went form 15min to 30min on NBC and CBS in 1963 -in 1971 the FCC passed the prime-time access rule (PTAR), which took away one hour of nighttime programming from the networks and gave it back to the local affiliates -finanical interest and syndication rule was passed by the FC in 1971 was designed to keep the networks from producing and owning any of the programs they aired in primetime and to break up the vertically integrated oligopolistic structure of the American television industry -this ruling took a few years but it opened up the production of tv shows to numerous independent companies -network domination did not end over night, but the combination of an activist FCC and the rise of cable networks in the 1970s and 1980s created a much more competitive environment in tv for a while EXPORTING AMERICAN TELEVISION -Period of network domination=period in which American television programs became the dominant source of television entertainmen
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