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Information Technology
ITEC 3010
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Systems Analysis and Design I ITEC3010 – Fall 2010 – Luiz Cysneiros Lecture 1 & 2 – Introduction & Chapter 1 – Sept 14 & 21 What is Systems Analysis and Design (SAD)? - Systems analysis: understanding and specifying in detail what an information system should do. - System design: specifying in detail how the parts of an information system should be implemented. Why is it Important? - Success of information systems depends on good SAD. - Widely used in industry – proven techniques. - Part of career growth in IT – lots of interesting and well-paying jobs. - Increasing demand for systems analysis skills. Course Objectives - To provide you with new ways of looking at information in the world in order to solve business problems - To introduce you to concepts and methods of System Analysis and design (SAD) - To describe the systems development life cycle (SDLC) - To teach you effective methods for gathering essential information during system analysis - To teach you effective methods for designing systems to solve problems effectively using technology Course Topics - Introduction to systems analysis and design (Chapter 1) o The analyst as problem solver o Required skills of systems analysts o Types of jobs and the analyst’s role o Example: rocky mountain outfitters - The analyst as project manager (chapter 3) o The systems development life cycle (sdlc)  Planning phase  Analysis phase  Design phase  Implementation phase  Support phase o The project team - Approaches to Systems Development (chapter 2) o Methodologies and Models o 2 approaches:  Structured approach  Object-oriented approach o Waterfall Models for SDLC o Other variations o Computer-aided software engineering (CASE) - Identifying system requirements (chapter 4) o Stakeholders o Methods - e.g. Questionnaires, interviews, observation, build prototypes, others - Modelling system requirements (chapter 5,6,7 and 8) o Types of models - e.g. Mathematical, descriptive, graphical o Identifying and modeling events o Identifying and modeling “things” in the world o Traditional and object-oriented methods - System Design (Chapters 9,10,11,14 and 15) o Going from requirements to design o Elements of design o Approaches  Structured approach  Object-oriented approach o Design of inputs and outputs o Designing databases o Designing user interfaces Chapter 1 – The World of the Modern System Analyst - System Analysis: the process of understanding and specifying in detail what the information system should do - System Design: the process of specifying in detail how the many component parts of the information system should be implemented - System Analyst: A professional who used analysis and design techniques to solve business problems (involving information technology) - A theme of the course: developing effective information systems is much more than just writing computer programs (involves cognitive skills in understanding problems and knowing where computer technology best “fits in”) Thinking in Terms of ‘Systems’ - What is a system? o A system is a collection of interrelated components (subsystems) that function together to achieve some outcome (e.g. biological system, computer system, social system) o An information system is a collection of interrelated components that collect, process, store and provide as output the information needed to complete business tasks (e.g. payroll system) Characteristics of Systems - Systems are made up of interrelated subsystems (e.g. a nuclear reactor is composed of boilers, reactor components etc.) - Functional decomposition – dividing a system into components based on subsystems (which are in turn further divided into subsystems) - System boundary – the separation between a system and its environment (where inputs and outputs cross) - Automation boundary – separation between the automated part of system and the manual part ‘Systems’ Thinking - Being able to identify something as a system - Involves being able to identify subsystems - Identifying system characteristics and functions - Identifying where the boundaries are (or should be) - Identifying inputs and outputs to systems - Identifying relationships among subsystems Types of Information Systems - Transaction processing systems (TPS) o Capture and record information about the transactions that affect the organization (e.g. the sale of an item, a withdrawal from an ATM etc.) - Management Information Systems (MIS) o Take information captured by the transaction processing system and produce reports management needs for planning and controlling business - Executive Information Systems (EIS) o Provide information for executives to use in strategic planning (could be from organizational database, or outside sources like stock market reports) - Decision Support Systems (DSS) o Support human decision making and allows users to explore the potential impact of available options or decisions (e.g. can ask “what if”) o Closely related to “expert systems” or “knowledge-based” systems Required Skills of the Systems Analyst - Technical Knowledge and Skills o Computers and how they work in general o Programming languages o Devices that interact with computers o Communications networks o Database and database management systems o Operating systems and utilities - Tools: software products used to help develop analysis and design specifications and completed system components o e.g. Microsoft Access, Integrated development environments, computer- supported system engineering (CASE) tools - Business Knowledge and Skills o What activities and processes do organizations perform? o How are organizations structured? o How are organizations managed? o What type of work (activity) is done in the organization? (e.g. hospital, bank etc.) o Who are the “actors” doing the activities - About the organization (e.g. company) the system analyst needs to know: o What the specific organization does o What makes it successful o What its strategies and plans are o What its tradition (“culture”) and values are - People Knowledge and Skills o Single most important interpersonal skill:  To communicate clearly and effectively with others! - Since analysts work on teams with others (e.g. team members, clients etc.) must understand about people: o How people think o How people learn o How people react to change o How people communicate o How people work (“activities” and “actors”) - Other areas: o Skill in interviewing, listening and observing o Good written and oral presentation o Being able to work in a team Typical Job Titles - Programmer/analyst - Business systems analyst - System liaison - End-user analyst - Business consultant - Systems consultant - System support analyst - System designer - Software engineer - System architect Rocky Mountain Outfitters (RMO) and Its Strategic Information Systems Plan - RMO sports clothing manufacturer and distributor about to begin customer support system project - Need to understand the nature of the business, approach to strategic planning, and objectives for customer support system - RMO system development project used to demonstrate analysis and design concepts Introduction to Rocky Mountain Outfitters (RMO) Business - Began in Park City, Utah supplying winter sports clothes to local ski shops - Expanded into direct mail-order sales with small catalog—as catalog interest increased, opened retail store in Park City - Became large, regional sports clothing distributor by early 2000s in
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