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ITEC 3230 (10)


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Information Technology
ITEC 3230
Sotirios Liaskos

INTERACTION D ESIGN 1 Gathering Requirements: Acquisition Techniques O VERVIEW Requirements Elicitation Techniques What are requirements What is involved in gathering them Acquisition Techniques 2 W HAT REQUIREMENTS ARE User/Business Goals What users actually want. User Characteristics Who the users are and what they can do. Context of Use Where, under what conditions, environmental, organizational, cultural or other the system shall operate. 3 U SER G OALS  User Goals  Functional Goals Purchase A Computer On Line Stay in Touch with Friends Write an Assignment …  Non-Functional Goals Usability Goals that are critical Learnability and Efficiency for a self-service airport check-in Safety for a nuclear reactor Experience Goals Exciting, engaging, challenging,etc.. Other Non-Functional Goals Maintain Privacy, Maintain a Professional Image, Incr4ase Availability to Colleagues etc. U SER C HARACTERISTICS AND SKILLS  Characteristics and Skills  ability, background and attitude to computers  System use:  Skill level: novice vs. expert  Frequency of use: casual vs. frequent  Concerns for each type of user:  Experts want flexibility and access/power.  Frequent users need short-cuts.  Novices and casual users want clear instructions. 5 U SER C HARACTERISTICS • Characteristics and Skills: • ability, background and attitude to computers • System use: novice, expert, casual, frequent • Novice: step-by-step (prompted), constrained, clear information • Expert: flexibility, access/power • Frequent: short cuts • Casual/infrequent: clear instructions, e.g. menu paths 6 C ONTEXT OF U SE  Physical  Limited Space? Noisy? Vibration? Light? Heat? Dusty? Humidity?  Social:  Sharing of files, displays, or paper  Physical proximity/distance  Style of work (collaborative vs. individual)  Organizational/Cultural:  Hierarchy, communications structure and infrastructure, relationship types (informal, formal, mutual support, competition, trust),7power relationships and politics. T HE R EQUIREMENTS A CQUISITION P ROCESS  Data Gathering Activities  Gathering information from the field/user  Data Analysis Activities  Making sense of the data  Requirements Modeling and Representation  Modeling and representing the results.  May occur at any point during the design process:  Initially when figuring out what the project is about.  During early prototyping i.e. when the first models of the system are exposed to stakeholders 8  During later evaluation stages. D ATA G ATHERING A CTIVITIES  At the Beginning  Understanding Organization (or individual users or user population) and current processes (or habits, activities)  Understanding problem with existing situation and implicit/explicit user needs and opportunities.  During Design  To test prototypes  To evaluate models and ideas  In the End  Final usability study 9 W HAT A RE THE S OURCES OF D ATA  Involved People User is a person who will actually use the interface. Stakeholder is any person that is influenced by or influences the system – may not be user. These include: Secondary users: occasional users or those who use the system through an intermediary. Tertiary users: affected by the system or influence its purchase The social, cultural and physical environment in which the users exist and work/live.  Documentation Existing forms, documents, rules/regulations.  Existing systems That solve the same requirements Competitors systems. 10 INTERVIEWS  Unstructured - are not directed by a script. Rich but not replicable.  Structured - are tightly scripted, often like a questionnaire. Replicable but may lack richness.  Semi-structured - guided by a script but interesting issues can be explored in more depth. Can provide a good balance between richness and replicability. 11 INTERVIEW PROCESS  Introduction – introduce yourself, explain the goals of the interview, reassure about the ethical issues, ask to record, present any informed consent form.  Warm-up – make first questions easy and non- threatening.  Main body – present questions in a logical order  A cool-off period – include a few easy questions to defuse tension at the end  Closure – thank interviewee, signal the end, e.g, switch recorder off. 12 INTERVIEW QUESTIONS  Two types:  Closed questions: have a predetermined answer format e.g. yes or no or choosing from a list of options  Open-ended questions: do not have a pre-determined format.  Closed-ended questions are easier to analyse (e.g. aggregate) 13 C ONDUCTING THE INTERVIEW  Before:  Establish Objectives  Select the appropriate interviewee  Study related material  Build a list of questions!  During:  Go in pairs or small groups!  Listen a lot, talk little.  Follow a master-apprentice model (see next).  Ask for details, or unknown terms, words and processes that are mentioned.  Take thorough notes.  Avoid tape-recording.  (Right) After:  Review notes and write better or transfer to models.  Construct new set of clarification questions  Thank your interviewee. 14 R ELATIONSHIP M ODELS  Relationship model to aim for:  Master/Apprentice:  Analyst plays the role of the “apprentice” that wants to learn a craft from the “master” (i.e. the interviewee).  Relationship models to avoid  Novice/Expert  Interviewee/Interviewer  Host/Guest  Analyst is able to enforce relationship model 15 INTERVIEWS  Advantages  Can collect larger amounts of information  Can help gauge people’s real feelings needs etc.  Flexibility; can direct discussion so that the right information is given  Disadvantages  Needs skill…  Can be hard to make sense of the result and compare with other stakeholders.  It is expensive.  Challenges  Unanswerable questions  how do you tie the laces of your shoes?  Tacit Knowledge:  knowledge the interviewee will not disclose (unconsciously or not)  Removal from context 16  Biases caused by interviewer’s attitude G ROUP E LICITATION (F OCUS G ROUP )  What is it:  Inquiry based on meeting of a group of individuals.  Has different dynamics than the interview.  Interviewer is basically a moderator of the group.  Less structured than interviews.  Why focus group?  Allow diverse or sensitive issues to be raised.  Provide direct evidence of similarities and differences between participants (otherwise difficult to identify thorough post-hoc analysis).  Participants play a more important role in guiding the discussion = less control from the researcher = a bit more natural.  Very efficient: e.g. two 8-person focus groups can produce the same amount of information as 10 interviews. 17 W HAT GOES ON IN A F OCUS G ROUP  It consists of people who have a shared characteristic:  Sample from a particular market segment: e.g. young adults living downtown Toronto (e.g. for a bike sharing system)  Sample from a group of users:  York Instructors/Students  TTC riders  May involve many sessions with different samples.  Moderator asks:  Open ended exploratory questions  e.g. how do you feel about [such-and-such] process/system, what are your priorities/strong desires etc.  Subject participants to stimuli and observe/solicit reaction  E.g. show them different wireframes (mock-ups) and gauge their reaction (both verbal and non-verbal)  E.g. Ask them to classify, rate, priotitize, comment on concepts, ideas, and early designs. Q UESTIONNAIRES  What they are:  Roughly: collections of questions answered by a larger number of respondents.  Why:  Need a larger sample of the target population  Generation of statistics and performance of statistical inferences.  Impossible to access respondents otherwise (e.g. geographical/cost limitations).  How:  Questionnaire Design  Sample selection Method.  Questionnaire Administration. 19  Analysis of Responses. Q UESTIONNAIRE A DMINISTRATION  Self-administered  By Mail or E-mail  Send the questionnaire to a number of potential respondents and wait for response.  Issue: response rate  Benefit: no individual biases.  Group-administered  Subject a group to the same stimuli.  All subjects answer under the same conditions.  Through Interview Schedules  Trained interviewers contact each respondent go through the questions following a schedule.  Benefits:  Higher response rates.
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