KINE 1020 Lecture Notes - Bronchiole, Bronchus, Epiglottis

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Cardiorespiratory System and Metabolism
The Human Respiratory System
Figure 1: Remember what each part of the respiratory system does
1. Sinus Area warms the air before it goes into the lungs because it makes it easier to extract oxygen when the air is warm
a. Cilia are thin projections in which it does not allow unwanted substances to go into your lungs , acts like a filter
b. Mucus does not allow foreign things to enter the lungs, but instead of it going to you lungs the mucus traps the
foreign material and it is swallowed and digested in the stomach.
Components of the Lower Respiratory Tract
3 Lobes in the right lung, and there are 2 lobes in the left lung,
o The reason why one lung is smaller than the other is because the heart comes in the way
Passage way for air
o Bronchus Bronchioles Terminal Bronchiole Alveoli
Conductive Zone (no gas exchange): mouth/nose trachea Larynx Bronchi Bronchiole
o Primary job is to humidify, warm, and filter air
Respiratory Zone (gas exchange): Bronchioles Alveoli
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Cardiorespiratory System and Metabolism
o Every alveolar sack is covered in capillary networks which is for gas exchange the way it exchanges gas is diffusion
Diffusion: is the spread of particles through random motion from regions of higher concentration to
regions of lower concentration.
Figure 2: Alveolar sacks. Where gas exchange occurs.
Inspiration vs. Expiration
Inspiration: external intercostal muscles allows for expansion of the rib cage which allows air to come into your lungs
o Diaphragm: is pushed down by the lungs to allow more room in the lungs.
Expiration: internal intercostal muscles allow air to be pushed out
o Diaphragm: is shrinked because the air needs to be pushed out of the lungs.
Lung Function Tests
Tidal Volume: normal volume of air displaced between normal inspiration and expiration when extra effort is not applied
Total Lung Cap: refer to the volume of air associated with different phases of the respiratory cycle
Functional Residual Capacity: Volumes of air present in the lungs, specifically at the parenchyma tissues at the end of
passive expiration.
Vital Capacity: maximum amount of air a person can expel from the lungs after a maximum inspiration.
Bigger the torso the bigger the lungs
o Around average male and female tend to have the same tidal volume
Lung Number
Minute Ventilation (rest) =Breathing Freq (breath/min) x tidal volume (L)
= 12-15 (breath/min) * 0.5 (L)
= 6.0 7.5L/min
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