Lecture 5, Purpose of Research
The point of research is to try to develop new information, in an organized way, or to
modify information that is already present !
•were ﬁrst widely believed to be caused by stress !
•turns out it is actually caused by a bacteria in your stomach !
Best type of research possible is a Randomized controlled trial (RCT) !
•randomly assigning people to groups !
•we do this to get rid of alternate hypothesis !
Research ideas that we have come from asking the question “why” !
Axiom: a statement that is considered worthy or notable. It is an important idea. here
are some scientiﬁc Axioms !
•Amorality: knowledge and morality are two separate things. So if you have a stick, is
it good or bad? well if i hit you with it its bad, but if i save you with it its a good stick.
Its just a stick, its not good or bad !
•Caution: accept new knowledge with caution, and always be skeptical !
•Consistency: the same thing happens every time, like dropping something !
•Determinism: you are able to ﬁgure out why things happen, using logical explanation !
•empiricism: knowledge should be based on observation of data !
•intelligibility: we have the ability to understand the world !
•Parsimony: using simple explanations is always better !
•Skepticism: knowledge can always be questioned and challenged !
Hypothesis: is an idea that you have to predict an event, that is testable and is based
on facts from prior research !
You always state your research as the null hypothesis !
•this is done so that it is always possible to falsify the hypothesis !
There are two types of hypothesis !
•Directional (research) hypothesis !
•Non Directional (Null) hypothesis!
Example: sugar makes kids hyperactive. The Null hypothesis for this is: There will be
no diﬀerence between the group of kids who eat sugar and those who don’t !
A fact is a consistently observed event!
A theory puts together a lot of facts to try to explain how certain events are related to
each other !