Lecture 7, Research methods continued
The ﬁnal type of research category is human vs animal !
•Animal uses animals for studies!
•human uses humans for research !
Using animal research we can use: !
•gaining knowledge and information just by observing animals and plants !
•Example Seals that can dive in the ocean, hold their breath for 30 minutes and be
•researchers decide to use animals as subjects to test treatments that are still in the
developing stages to see if they are safe for human trials!
We use animals because !
•they’re good for basic research !
•we have high genetic similarity with them !
•we have a high degree of control over them!
•you can get a large sample of them easily !
Physical vs life sciences !
•in life sciences it is harder and almost impossible to control every single aspect of the
experiment, without there being some sort of extraneous variables !
Population: the whole group that has one or more of the same characteristics. A
population is whatever the researcher wants it to be. It could be everyone in Canada or
everyone in the front row of the lecture, it is up to the researcher !
Sample: members of the population that act as a representative group of the entire
population, because the population is too large to measure !
Children, women and seniors are seldom used in drug studies. The people used are
usually young healthy white males. !
•it is just assumed that the drug will work for everyone !
•the drug companies always argue that it is too costly to involve other people in
•its a characteristic or trait that you can measure or classify !
•if the characteristic doesn’t vary, then it is considered a constant !
•If everyone had the same height, it would be a constant, but since everyones height
is diﬀerent, it is considered a variable !