KINE 3020 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Proprioception, Habituation, Posterior Parietal Cortex

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Motor Learning
Memory
Learning & Retaining (i.e. Memory) are 2 different processes
Memory 2 stages
o Short-term memory & Long-term memory
converting / consolidating the short-term into long-term memory
Learning involved consolidating
Short-term memory long-term memory
2 Types of Memory
Procedural Memory
o Skill Memory Motor Learning
o Implicit Automatic
o Parietal & Motor Cortical Areas, Basal Ganglia, Cerebellum
No Single area responsible for Motor Learning
Declarative Memory
o Memories for Facts & Events
o Explicit
Amnesia (2 types)
Lost the Past
cannot form a New Memory
o Basal Ganglia
o Hippocampal formation
in the Temporal Lobe
Store info in other parts of the brain
Hippocampus is only for Consolidation
short term to long term
It is NOT the actual storage area
Episodic Memory
o Your Point of view
o Last birthday
o Amygdala
Emotional info storage
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Types of Motor Learning
Adaptation
o Modify Motor Output in response to changing sensory input
don’t need to learn a new skill
Add & modify on the top of existing skills
e.g. VOR Adaptation
o Vestibulo-ocular reflex
o Prism Adaptation
o Skill Acquisition
involves expansion of the Motor Repertoire
Menu of Motor Skills
can choose
o Conditioned-associative
Pavlovian
o non-associative
Habituation / Sensitization to repetitive stimuli
Habituation
Repetition
less Response
Technique of Fear removal
Sensitization
Repetition
More Response
PTSD
Loud Sounds
make it worse
Learning Martial Arts
Automatic Response
All contribute to Motor Skill learning
Role of Afferent information
Trial & Error learning depends on comparing sensory feedback with the intended action
(cerebellum) or outcome with intention (basal ganglia)
o highly trained
Doesn’t need an aid of the Error-correction process (visually)
Leaning requires somatosensory input
based on the proprioception & somatosensory sensations rather than
Efference Copy
Higher neural activity within the sensory areas of the brain during initial learning of a
motor skill or motor adaptation
Lesioning dorsal roots of spinal cord prevents learning new movements
o but does not eliminate well-learned movements
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Cerebral Cortex
Initial Phases of Motor Learning
… large and diffuse regions of the brain are active
o As the Skill is learned
o … fewer brain areas remain active
Perception - Action
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