8 Feb 2016

School

Department

Course

Professor

KINE 3020 Nov 11th, 2015

Information Processing

Information

Information Processing Model

Stages of the Information Processing Model

Information Processing Model

Skilled Performance (Production & Outcome) & Skill Acquisition (Learning) Analysis

two questions arise …

o 1. What are the main factors controlling performance?

o 2. What are the differences between skilled performance & unskilled performance?

Information

Information Processing Model

Stages of the Information Processing Model

o 5 stages

Selective Attention

Perception

Decision

Effector

Feedback

///

Perception = stimulus "identification"

Decision = response "selection"

Effector = response "programming"

"Ask His help. And be humble because everything has done by Him."

Information

Human beings … Processors of Information

Amount of information [H] contained in a Signal is measured in Bits

o Bits

Unit of Measurement (i.e. Amount of Information in a Signal)

Binary Digit

log 2 N = bits

N = Number of Uncertainty

log 2 N = Bits; Number of Questions to reduce the Uncertainty in Half

o One Bit

or One Question

N = 2 (two uncertainty

One Bit is the amount of Information required to reduce Uncertainty by

Half

Example – Diagram

N = 1

o 1 uncertainty … No question required (log 2 1 = Zero bit) … answer is obvious

N = 2 (two boxes)

o 2 Uncertainties … One question required (log 2 2 = One bit)

1 question (i.e. one bit) reduces the uncertainty by half

2 Uncertainties … 1 Question / 1 Bit of information is good enough for

solving the problem

N = 4 (4 boxes, 1 marble)

o 4 Uncertainties … Two questions required (log 2 4 = Two bits)

o How many questions do you have to ask? maximum 2 questions

left half or right half; with remaining boxes … on the right? (or on the left?)

Question with 4 Uncertainties … 2 Questions / 2 Bits of information is good

enough for solving the problem

N = 8 (8 boxes)

o maximum 3 questions

Right half

o log 2 8 = log 2 23 = 3

Questions with 8 Uncertainties … 3 Questions / 3 Bits of information is good

enough for solving the problem

N = 16 (16 boxes)

o maximum 4 questions

o log 2 16 = log 2 24 = 4

log 2 N = bits

greater number of bits

o more difficulty for processing

o How much information is being processed?