KINE 3020 Lecture Notes - Lecture 18: Power Law, Liquid Oxygen, Type I And Type Ii Errors

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c.f.
Skills
o … Motor, Cognitive, Perceptual
Learning = Acquisition of Skill
o Power Law
log(T) = log(a) b log(N)
More Trials … Less time to Complete the Task
o Cognitive, Associative (Association … Connection), Autonomous
o Signs of Learning
Improvement, Consistency, Persistence, Adaptability
Limited Capacity, S-A Characteristic, RT, Limiting Principle
Information Processing Model
o … Selective Attention, Perception, Decision, Effector, Feedback, Action
SDT (Signal Detection Theory)
o Un-paced Task
o Perceptual Sensitivity (D’)
Good Sensitivity … Separation of Curves
i.e. No confusion … Less Errors
o Expectation / Rewards & Penalties (β)
Correct Negative, FA (Type I Error), Miss (Type II Error), Hit
Shift to Left
Lax
Less Miss, More False Alarm …Medicine
Shift to Right
Strict
More Miss, Less False Alarm … Admission’s Office
DRT (Discriminatory Reaction Time)
o Paced Task
o Crossman’s Confusion Function
DRT = a + b [1 / (log 2 X1 log 2 X2) bits]
Less difference between two stimuli … longer Reaction Time
CRT (Choice Reaction Time)
o Hick-Hyman Law
CRT = a + b log2 N bits
N = S-R choices
More Choice … longer Reaction Time
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Discriminatory Reaction Time (DRT)
DRT (Discriminatory Reaction Time)
o Paced Task
i.e. Keep the time
Shorter time given … less accurate
Longer time give … more accurate
Time to respond with Accuracy Constant
100% accuracy
if given sufficient time to respond
In Practical Situations … both kinds of Analysis (SDT & DRT) may be appropriate
o SDT (Signal Detection Theory)
o DRT (Discriminatory Reaction Time)
i.e. neither 100% accurate with unlimited time nor unlimited time to respond
Unskilled performer should first attain reasonable level of accuracy before attempting
to speed up
This is taken for granted when teaching Motor Skills but not Perceptual Skills
o Learning how to physically drive versus learning how to discern a possible
collision scenario
o we assume that you will figure it out
DRT (Discrimination Reaction Time)
Example of DRT Situation Volleyball
Attacker can either Spike or Tip
o Decision by Attacker … depends on Action by Defenders
o if both jump Tip
o if neither jump Spike
o if one jumps or they jump non-simultaneously so there is a height difference then
Spike over non-jumper or lower jumper
Attacker must discriminate height difference between defenders (paced task)
and respond as quickly as possible
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DRT Graph
RT to (A) will be longer (because of the Less Difference) than (B)
Similarity of Stimuli
the more alike to sets of stimuli are the longer it will take a performer to respond
o more similar they are … takes longer time
o Multiple Choice … similar choices … will take longer to answer that
Similarity of Stimuli graph
Law relating DRT to the Degree of Discriminability of Two Stimuli is called
Crossman’s Confusion Function
o different … easy to pick
o Similar … hard to pick
The law applies to a comparison of any two stimuli which are …
o Presented Simultaneously
o Can be measured along a physical dimension in terms of discriminability
differences
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