May 18 Anxiety 3 hour lecture. Anxiety, inverted U, catastrophe theory, Jones' directionality theory, Malcolm Gladwell, deliberate practice, stress process, 3 stress coping strategies.

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Published on 16 Oct 2011
KINE 4520 May 18, 2011
Part B -- treat it as if professor knows nothing about topic. Show how important
psychological skills are
Final Test
June 8th - lecture material from today on, plus assigned chapters (7 and 8)
12:30-12:50 - Anxiety on Wednesday, June 1
-Anxiety is not tangible (broad but has tremendous impact on us - learned about “Stress
Process” from last class
-Perceived imbalance between one’s skills and the demands of the situation
-Threat to self-concept (David Beckham, 2004 European Championship - missed
penalty kick by a lot) - we feel stressed, disappointed, etc.
-Generally females are more anxious than males and require more social support at all
levels of competition
-Mia Hamm soccer player -- an athlete who says “I cannot compete in this situation,
because it is way too much pressure”
Why do athlete’s Choke?
-because of, “paralysis by analysis” - worried about outcome -- anxiety
-thinking too much about an activity that is usually automatic (Beilock, 2010) (golf is a
big one, chapter 7 - every hole is a new challenge - internal pressure - want to get
birdie, etc.)
-inverted U theory - relationship between performance and arousal is curvilinear
-there is an optimal level of arousal.
-performance is lowest when not aroused enough or too excited
-if a parent or teacher doesn’t know what the athletes ultimate level of arousal is that
can raise it too much by giving a pump up speech.
-Catastrophe Theory -- there is a sharp decline in performance at a certain point after
an emotional event (ex. make a mistake early on in the game). Performance and
physiological arousal. Think of a quarterback who makes a mistake early on in the game
and then doesn’t perform well. Coach should possibly pull from game.
-Our perception of out ability to control the situation determines the stress response. Do
we have the skills? Hossiers film (1986).
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KINE 4520 May 18, 2011
-a symptom of anxiety is a failure to make eye contact
-attention to and interpretation of arousal -- how we perceive the event (challenge, thrill
vs. “I can’t believe I’m in this situation, everyone is depending on me)
-our interpretation of the situation we are in becomes the self fulling prophecy ( I have
no chance.)
-As self-belief declines, the perceived demands of the task grow - We will perceive the
basketball rim as smaller than it actually is.
-performance enhanced, performance unraveled
-when opposition calls a time out (to ice athlete but really to stress out an athlete on the
opposite team that had just made a mistake and creating more time for them to think
about it) can get you team member to image their success and making the shot.
Jones’ Directionality Theory (our perception of our anxiety levels)
-SKiier, Steve Podboski -”I cant be too nervous” Tiger Woods “Nervousness is a
challenge and thrill, a Blythe Hardey - Must be a “nervous wreck”
-different athletes need different levels of anxiety -- but how the athlete copes with the
anxiety is important
-how athletes cope with anxiety is more important than how much anxiety they
-Identifying sources of stress is a collaborative effort.
Symptoms of Anxiety
Cognitive, Somatic, Behavioural
e.g Cognitive - Indecision, confusion, negative thoughts, poor concentration, loss of
confidence (if coach talking with athletes and they are indecisive about something you
told them to do and they are questioning it - this is a sign of anxiety)
Somatic -Increase in blood pressure, heart rate, breathing, perspiration. clammy hands
(if athletes aware of these changes than aware they are in an anxious state)
Behavioral - biting fingernails, lethargic, avoids eye contact, pacing
-an increase in some arousal levels is not debilitating e.g. increasing heart rate can be
good but if it is a result of indecision or loss of confidence than it can be negative.
Pre-competitive Anxiety
-attributes that show athlete can’t cope with the situation: fear of failure, fear of negative
social evaluation, fear of injury (can result in being injured more), importance of event
(e.g. first race back from injury, olympic trials), disruption to routine (change something
that is well learned at an event, not practice), coaching and organizations (coaches can
be way to harsh or soft -- they may try to motivate you by fear instead of success,
organization expectations e.g. organization gives a very generous contract - now the
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KINE 4520 May 18, 2011
athlete feels more pressure to perform AND prior to an athlete playing organizations
may be promoted before they begin and say they will be stars).
Anxiety During Event
I. Making a physical or mental error
II. Criticism from the coach
III. Observing an opponent cheat
IV. intense pain or injury
V. bad call by the official
VI. beaten by opponent
VII. poor environmental conditions
*criticism from the coach is the leading cause of anxiety during an event
-aggressive coaching and parents occurring more frequently in youth sports
Children and “social” anxiety (disorders)
-persistent fear of social or performance situation in which embarrassment may occur
(american psychiatric association, 2000)
-the disorder usually occurs during adolescence (12-16)
-Dimech and Seiler (2010) proposed that the sport experience might reduce the
incidence of anxiety disorder. (if coaching style promotes skill instead of ego orientation)
Children with high anxiety (Ratey, 2008)
-Very sensitive to fear of failure and negative social evaluation
-Worry more often about making mistakes, not playing well, and losing
-More likely to develop depression later in life.
Coaching CLimates (Youth Sports)
-Mastery, success is defined in terms of self-improvement, effort, and persistence
Children with supportive coaches enjoy the experience and are less anxious
-Ego, promotes social comparison. Coaches save positive reinforcement for players
mores competent and instrumental in winning (have favourites). Children who fear
failure are hurt more by critical coaches.
-Out of control amateur coaches mentally abuse players - (parents put children in this
environment because think it is the ticket to being the next Tiger Woods or Serena
WIlliams. Why? Success oriented society where all glory goes to winners
-look at goals of some industries (coaching especially in hockey -- get paid today, before
it was volunteer, so want to win to keep getting money)
For Optimal Performance to Occur
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