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Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 1020
Kuk/ Riddell

Dental Age: -look at teeth to indicate health -fluoride helps keep teeth healthy, artificial age Bone Age: -cells reproduce and help make bone shaft longer -growth plate = cells at the end od bone -darker = more harder bone is (fetal skeleton) -skull = bunch of different bones, skull is soft when first born (cone head) -bones are getting bigger and whiter (harder) -people born in first part of the year have more of an advantage in sports Physiological Age (wrinkles): -wrinkles -age 30 = forehead furrows -age 40 = wrinkles beside eyes, between nose, corners of mouth -age 50 = permanent web of lines around eyes and mouth; skin on cheeks starts to loosen and sag *white people wrinkle easier than black people -age 60: bags under eyes, liver spots (melanin pigment; clumps of tan skin) -age 70- thin, dry, waxy skin, ears/nose become longer MPHL: -white males are most likely to go bald -testosterone causes hair loss Height Loss: -osteoporosis = quicker height loss (4” as opposed to the average 2”) -brain decreases in weight as you get older; exercise (crosswords, brain games); tv = increase in brain loss - basal metabolic rate (rate on which we generate heat/burn calories) decreases; always cold -cardiac output decreases; blood isn’t pumped as fast -respiratory capacity; can’t run as quickly Nutrition: -essential nutrients; we don’t make them (eg water, macronutrients, some vitamins/minerals) Water: -used in digestion and absorption -body = 60% water -50 days or more without food, only few days without water -medium in which most chemicals reactions take place -recommended = 2L/day Macronutrients: -protein (4kcal/g) -carbs (4kcal/g) -lipids (9kcal/g) -alcohol (7kcal/g) *most foods contain some of each Proteins  building block for tissues in body; provide fuel for body Carbs  provide energy; energy source; -Simple Carbs (sugar; glucose, fructose, sucrose) -Complex Carbs (starches, refined, whole grain; fiber; stay fuller for longer) Glycemic Index: -how quickly sugar enters blood -high glycemic foods raise blood sugar and require more insulin to be released; diabetes, dieting, athletes Fiber: -keeps colon clean; goes right through -lowers glycemic index -binds water, bulks up/softens feces -binds with cholesterol; makes it more difficult for it to enter blood -lowers cholesterol levels Fats: Saturated Fats: -provide energy, production of cholesterol and LDL (bad) -from meat, dairy, egg yolks Unsaturated Fats: -provide energy -trigger more “good” cholesterol production and less “bad” cholesterol production -fish, avocado, etc Linoleic acid (omega 6); consuming too much omega6 and not enough omega 3 (balance) = heart disease, arthritis, cancer, etc Alpha-linoleic acid (omega 3); lowers blood clots, inflammation, blood pressure; canola, flax, green veg Trans fatty acids: -not essential -related with heart disease ALPHA-LINOLEIC ACID (liquid at room temp) TRANS PUFA (solid at room temp) Vitamins: Fat Soluble: -easy to overdose -A,D,E,K Water Soluble: -difficult to overdose -B,C Functions: -regulating growth, Minerals: Major: -Na, K, chloride, Calcium, P, Mg Trace Minerals: -Iron, Zinc, Selenium, Iodine, Copper, Manganese, Fluoride -17 essential ones -inorganic (non-carbon containing) -regulate body function, growth/maintenance -also can be toxic -most commonly lacking = iron, calcium, zinc, and Mg Why is change so hard? Barriers to change: -lack of core values (eg. Exercising everyday) -education reinforces core values (eat better, exercise, etc) -procrastination -preconditioned cultural beliefs (eg. eating a huge meal) -instant vs long-term gratification (eg. Having a cigarette+drink, what are long term affects? -risk complacency (eg. I don’t think long term investment is worth it, im gonna be fine) -complexity and feeling overwhelmed (easier to make wrong choices) -rationalization (thinking you are doing enough Self Efficacy: -belief in own ability -determines how you feel/think/behave -influences stress/depression Sources of self-efficacy: -doing something repeatedly and becoming good at it -vicarious experiences (find a role model, visualize success) Motivation and Locus of Control: Motivation: -comes from within -triggered by external factors Locus of Control: -internal (believe in your destiny, how long you are gonna live, what marks you get, etc) -external (no matter how hard I try, no one recognizes it, “shit happens”) -continuum (always changing) -internals earn better grades and work harder (spend more time on homework/studying, focused, work hard = pay off = more successful) What makes some people develop and external locus of control? -religion -work hard but results don’t show it Disadvantages of and Internal Locus of Control: -internals can sometimes be psychologically unhealthy and unstable -needs to be matches by competence, self-efficacy and opportunity (if you’re confident, you better be good at what you do; confidence matched by competence (actually can do it); have these 2 things = more successful) -externals are easy-going, relaxed, lead happy lives Changing Behaviour: Process: 1. Stop a negative behaviour (eg.smoking, driking, porn) 2. Preventing a relapse of negative behaviour 3. Developing a positive behaviour (eg. Go to the gym, stop watching tv) 4. Strengthening a positive behaviour (eg. Reward yourself) 5. Maintaining a positive behaviour Learning Theories: -most behaviour is learned, requires reinforcement and expected outcomes -modifying small behaviours that shape new pattern of behaviour (eg taking 10,000 steps/day) Problem Solving Model: -many behaviours are the result of decision making Social Cognitive Theory: Change is influenced by: -environment -self-efficacy -characteristics Relapse Prevention Model: -anticipate high risk situations such as lack of motivation, social pressure, negative physiological/psychological states Process of Change -individualized -timing is critical Awakening: -consciousness raising (find out info about problem) -social liberation (external alternatives); in a society that doesn’t value something, but move to another society that does value something (eg. Biking in one community) -self-analysis (desire to change) -emotional arousal (eg. Cigarette packs pictures, visiting someone in hospital w/cancer); dramatic release -Positive Outlook -Commitment (accept responsibility to change) -Behaviour analysis (determine behaviour pattern); looking at specific patterns in days/relationships to find problem -Goals (eg run half marathon, need to be prepared) -Self-re
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