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Kine 1020 part 2.rtf

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Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 1020
Jennifer Kuk

Kine 1020 continued Because of breathing pattern, it affects heart function. Decreases maximal SV - the way their heart beats. It cannot be corrected by exercise training Respiratory and locomotive muscles for a lower total O2 supply Ex. 4L VO2 max, normally you need 2L to walk, you have half reservoir. Lets say 0.5 of that is for your lungs. Restrictive lung disease causes it to be 4X. Already at your VO2 max, not because of your legs, but you need to breathe so much. What used to be 50% is now 100% of their VO2 max. Airway diseases - narrowing or blockage of airways (more common) ie. asthma, bronchitis, emphysema, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) like "trying to breathe out through a straw" - HIGH RESISTANCE! Asthma - 5% of population - normal airways at rest - usually bronchioles do not contribute to airway resistance because their total x- sectional area is 2000 times that of the trachea - so much larger, it doesnt provide resistance to air getting in the lung - asthma is associated with bronchoconstriction, edema and mucus - drowns the cilia (brushes debris back up and destroys bacteria that is catches) - so much mucus that the mucus cant be cleared and swallowed in the stomach Common Asthma Triggers for attacks - animals (pet hair or dander) - dust - cold weather - exercise What happens is that overtime, it is repeated irritation; repeated inflammaiton to bronchioles, it changes structure. It will be thicker. -> Airway Inflammation, Airway remodelling, Airway hypersensitivity, reversible airflow obstruction Asthmatics have smaller bronchioles cross-sectional area (smaller straw to breathe out of) Forced expiratory volume lower than non-asthmatics Emergency Asthma Symptoms - bluish color to lips and face - decreased level of alertness (severe drowsiness or confusion) - extreme difficulty breathing - rapid pulse - severe anxiety due to shortness of breath Asthma Treatment - relivers (quick acting bronchodilators) - they can breathe; air gets in - controllers (longer acting anti-inflammatory/bronchodialators) - chronic stabilizers - inhaled corticosteroids (reducing inflammation) - changes voice (low husky voice) Asthma and Training - Asthma prevalence among elite athletes is similar if not higher than in non- athletes Effect of training: - no effect on resting lung function (no difference at rest for asthmatic and nonasthmatic) - increased cardiorespiratory fitness (they have same ability to increase VO2 max as long as they dont have bronchioconstriction and control inflammation, no scarring on bronchioles) - quality of life? - alterations in symptoms? Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder (COPD) - Bronchitis + Emphysema Itis = inflammation Inflammed primary and secondary bronchi chronic bronchitis is caused most often by exposure to airborne pollutants such as cigarette smoke what happens: smoke irritates bronchioles, irritates it - remodels airways Emphysema remodels the lungs, looks like grapes with alveoli with big surface area - alveoli get destroyed (grapes start popping) - smaller surface area than normal/before - diffusion surface area reduced Feb 13, 2013 VO2 = CO x SV particles in second hand smoke are smaller can hit the lung deeper Normally, hypoxia in muscle causes VD - increases blood flow - increases oxygen supply BUT hypoxia in pulmonary blood vessels - VC; pressure goes up; heart works harder - pulmonary hypertension - increase afterload on RIGHT ventricle - how hard heart has to work because right pumps blood to lung Can cause Right ventricular Heart failure - heart gets fatigued and tired out and it drops dead from exhaustion - competes with high blood pressure in pulmonary blood artery because of low O2 supply and VC Impact of COPD - 5th leading cause of death; major cause: smoking (environment, infections) - weigh loss is a symptom: competing with disease - takes energy; dont eat when you dont feel well chronic Bronchitis - irriation of bronchial tubes - becomes inflammed -> inner lining swells -> excessive thick MUCUS - air flow obstruction damage (cilia) and cough it outs - bronchiole tube swells up - structural changes that can occur Symptoms of Acute Bronchitis - frequent cough that produces mucus - mild fever - fatigue, wheezing sounds when breathing - tightness or dull pain in chest - sh
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