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Cardiorespiratory System and Disease.docx

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Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 1020
Angelo Belcastro

Cardiorespiratory System Nasal Passage • Warms and moistens air • Cleaned by cilia • Cilia push foreign substances and mucous up, until he epiglottis, so that it can be swallowed Two Parts to System Conductive (Dead air space /no gas exchange) • Mouth/nose trachea  larynx bronchi  Bronchioles • Brings air into body • Humidifies, warms and filters air • 17% of air breathed out is oxygen Respiratory Zone (gas exchange) • Bronchioles  alveoli Gas Exchange Between Blood and Alveoli • Diffusion of gasses from high to low • Capillaries wrapped around alveoli Inspiration external intercostal muscles – expand ribcage (muscles between ribs) Exhalation passive no muscle involvement, Forced = internal intercostal muscles –contract ribcage Diaphragm Lung Function – Spirometry tests • Blow all the air out of lungs • Shows vital capacity • Residual volume – air that still remains in lungs after blowing all of it out o cannot be removed be blowing it all out o keeps lungs from sticking together • Tidal volume – normal breath • Males bigger lungs Heart • Veins bring blood into the heart • Aorta brings blood out of heart • SA node regulates the beating of the heart (pacemaker) o Located on atria o Causing to contract • Why do we need ventricle and atria? • Atrial walls are thin and stretchy so blood can easily return to heart • Atria contractions over fill ventricles so that they are slightly stretched and allow for better contraction and ejection fraction • Ventricle walls much thicker, so it can generate the blood pressure needed to circulate blood o Creates elastic recoil- ejection fraction • HR – 50-80bom • Stroke volume 60-80mL/beat • Larger hearts lead to low heart rates and elite values – born with the heart and trainability Oxygen Carrier • Hemoglobin in red blood cell • Carries 98.5% of all o2 • Holds up to 4 O2 molecules • Carries waste (CO2, CO, NO) • Blood is poorly dissolved in bloods • CO binds very strongly to rbc, doesn’t allow O2 to bind • Oxygen attaches/detach through diffusion, area of high to low exchange • Transit time ( the longer it remains, the more o2 diffuses across) and surface area affects diffusion What happens with Exercise? • Oxygen intake reaches a steady state to meet energy demands using aerobic measures • Process takes time • 1L O2 = 5 kcal • lag time when you start exercise and when oxygen uptake starts to meet the requirements of new activity – oxygen deficit made up by oxygen debt • Ficks equation o VO2 = Q-cardiac output x (CaO2-CvO2) o Increase in Q increase VOz o Heart rate controlled by Vagal (parasympathetic) withdrawal 100-110 bpm (quick)  100 – 110 sympathetic is activated o stroke volume elastic recoil  reduced peripheral resistance  with exercise blood vessels will dilate and have more blood supply Vo2 • calories • METS – easy for people who have no background in physiology • 1MET = 3.5mL O2/kg/min o amount of energy you use at rest o marker of exercise intensity  higher fat mass, lower muscle mass, lower MET value than expected VO2 and Heart Rate • linear relationship • same with stroke and oxygen • heart rate increases until a certain point heart rate maximum 220-age (10-15 beats) • used to predict exercise intensity much easier than measuring VO2 max • Stroke volume increases with exercise o greater contractibility o reduced peripheral resistance (vasodilation) o increased ejection fraction (heart empties more) o elite athletes have bigger hearts (more stroke volume) • Theory increase Vo2 • 1. Deliver same amount of O2 extraction and greater proportion • 2. Deliver more O2 extraction and the same proportion • 3. You deliver more and extraction a greater proportion • delivery function of the concentration of hemoglobin + blood delivery • during exercise Hb does not increase • sometime decreases due to increase in plasma volume • BUT blood delivery increases – increase cardiac output • Net increase in O2 deliver due to more blood being pumped per miute • Extraction is related to the diffusion gradient, diffusion area( capillary space) and barriers to diffusion • Barriers to Diffusion • O2 carrier free spaces o O2 does not fuse in blood very well, needs rbc o Space between capillary and myoglobin – hemoglobin in muscle • You deliver more AND extract more Relative VO2 vs Absolute • Content of O2% at rest and untrained at max no difference, but elite is lower o Hemoglobin are not fully saturated at max exercise for elite exercise o Have higher cardiac output so more blood is delivered- not more hemoglobin Limits on VO2 Max (stroke volume and blood volume) • the heart beat faster? o No. your heart rate approaches max, ur storke volume may actually go down cuz heart doesn’t have enough time to fully fill • The heart beat more blood per beat? o Yes. Athletes have larger stroke volumes and some research shows that exercise can help make your heart bigger • Deliver more Oxygen? o Yes. Exercise may help make: increases in Hb in some but not all [blood doping] o Hyperoxic air help elite athletes load more O2 for athletes, not untrained • The muscle take up more of the oxygen that is deliver to it o More capillaries increase diffusion area o May help for smaller muscles o Don’t have enough heart power How does oxygen get transported? Bound to hemoglobin Which are all component of conductive zone? Nose larynx, trachea, bronchiole During normal inhalation, what happens? External intercostals contract and diaphragm goes down The blood leaving the pulmonary vein(back to heart) enters? Left atrium Transit time is the amount of time Amount of time rbc are available for diffusion Doubling in Q will have what effect on VO2? Doubling of Vo2 Vo2 = Q X During maximal exercise who will have higher CaO2? Trained Amount of concentration of oxygen Elite ppl have lower transit time due to really fast cardiac output Increases in which factors are most likely to result in an increase in VO2 max? NONE OF THE ABOVE : HR, More muscles, CvO2(amount of oxygen being taken back to the heart to be oxygenated – less is good), number of capillaries Factors Limiting Vo2 Max • Stroke volume and blood volume • Elite athletes have higher breathing rate • They also have bigger lungs • Systolic blood pressure high KNOW TABLE VO2 values for 20 year old men and women Energy Systems for Exercise Immediate : 4 mol ATP/ min 5-10 sec Short term: 2.5 mol ATP/min 1-2 min Long tern : 1 mol ATP/ min unlimited time 1. Glycolysis – Anaerobic • Does not need oxygen • ATP-PCr and glycolysis provide energy for 2 min of all out activity • Feedback mechanisms stop/activate systems • Glycogen (sugars , fats or proteins) 2. Pyruvate Metabolism Anaerobic • Without O2, pyruvate made in glycolysis is converted to lactate • Lactate transported by blood to liver ans used in gluconeogenesis (glucose production) 3.Oxidative System • Uses oxygen to generate energy • Production of ATP occurs in mitochondria • Yield much more energy than anaerobic • Slow to be activated • Primary method of energy production during endurance events • Smooth testing : special equipment Submaximal Test • Less strenuous • age differences in people Primary Criteria test ends when VO2 reaches a plateau (3 dots) Secondary Criteria • HR >90% of age predicted max • Blood lactate >/ 8mmol/L • Rating of perceived exertion >17 RPE o Rating starts at 6 – 20 year olds only o Multiply 6 X 10 gives u approx.. HR of person at tht level of exertion o Determining source of Fuel • Oxygen consumed relative to carbon dioxide produced is different for carbs, fats • 0.7( 100% fats) to 1.0 (%100 carbs ) • number of oxygen needed to break down each substance • Measurable • most people use 50/50 at rest • higher respiratory ratio goes, the more carbs are being burned • ppl with diabetes (TYPE 2) high RER
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