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Physical Fitness- Balance, speed, agility etc.

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Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 1020
Angelo Belcastro

Physical Fitness Dr. Kuk Musculoskeletal Fitness as a Function of Age • Threshold for dependence Balance • Signals upon which balance is dependent • Semi circular canals in ears • Kinesthetic sensors in muscles, tendons and joints • Visual perception • Co-ordination of the above stimuli (spastic lock coordination) Ear • Semi circular canals are filled with fluid with hairs • When fluid moves, hairs move which tells you which direction your moving • Vestibule Golgi Tendon Organs • Embedded in tendons, close to muscle insertions • Helps protect your muscle from being injured by inhibiting contraction • Provides info about muscle tension • Detects tension in the tendons of contracting muscle • Proprioceptive System feedback loop btwn muscle spindles, provide constant info about bodys position in space Muscle Spindles • Located between muscle fibres • provide info on muscle length, tension and load • highest density in small muscle designed for fine motor control • function is to resist stretch by stimulating contraction • inhibits contraction of opposing muscle (bicep contraction, triceps contraction is inhibited) • after stroke or spinal cord injury the spindles may be oversensitive and cause muscle stiffness • Muscle Spindle Reflex helps maintain muscle position by initiating contraction • Joint Kinesthetic Receptors • located in the connective tissue of a joint capsule • signal the extremes of joint angles • Respond to mechanical deformation occurring in the joint capsule and ligaments during dynamic movement • Respond more to passive that active movement Balance Affecters of Balance Performance 1. body weight 2. strength/power 3. center of gravity 4. fear 5. coordination Improvement of Balance 1. Practice the specific balance test items 2. Practice basic skills which demand a high degree of balance 3. Participate in sports which demand a high degree of balance Elderly Loss of Balance and Aging • Older adults have lower strength, a lower rate of strength development • Major difference between individuals and those who fall or who do not is not reaction time, it is rate of strength development (muscle power) • Older adults who engage in strength and power training maintain or improve their power and balance which leads to reduced falls Flexibility • Flexibility range of movement about a joint or joints • Considerations o Not a general characteristic o Static o Dynamic (stiffness or looseness reflected in speed of movement or power) • Importance o Avoiding injuries o Power development (plyometrics) o Muscle relaxation Limitations of Flexibility 1. mechanical factors: bone structure and muscle bulk 2. soft issue crossing a joint 3. injuries and disease-reduced tissue elasticity 4. inactivity 5. age 6. temperature a. warming joint increases flexibility by 20% b. cooling decreases by 10-20% 7. no difference btwn males and females when large number of articulations are considered 8. why only one measure included for flexibility Measurement of Flexibility 1. Goniometry a. Modified protractor b. Overhead-projected goniometer c. Electrogoniometer (developed for horses to train stride length) 2. Performance a. Criticism: body proportions b. Avoid? 3. Flexometer (Leighton) a. Usually only used for research Increase Flexibility • Through types of stretches • 1. Slow, static passive • 2. Active, dynamic, bouncing, ballistic • 3. Proprioceptive neuromuscular contraction of the muscle being stretched relaxes the antagonistic muscle • PNF superior to static and ballistic in increasing flexibility, however these exercises are complicated and often require trained partner • Static stretches are an effective compromise. Ballistic stretches are generally not recommended Importance of Flexibility Considerations • Too much could reduce stability of a joint and increase susceptibility to injury
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