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Lecture

KINE 1020 semester 1

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Department
Kinesiology & Health Science
Course
KINE 1020
Professor
Kuk/ Riddell
Semester
Fall

Description
Sept 15, 2010. - Hippocrates had an interest in exercises. - Hippocrates said that nutrition and exercise is very important for health. Said this a long time ago... This idea has been around for a long time - But only within these few hundred years, scientific articles written in terms of the field of Kinesiology has only exploded in the last 100 years. - Aristotle = Father of Kinesiology, We question Do people with higher education have better health? Or is it that good health helps one to get an education? - Aristotle also studied biomechanics (ex. Human and birds have 2 legs, but we walk differently) - Look at relationships with health and behaviour, and lifestyle choices. Ex. People who smoke are less likely to engage in physical activity. (Is it that you smoke so much that you have no time for leisure activity? Or that you dont do physical activity because you smoke?) - What is Physical Fitness? - 3 Domains of fitness (ARE YOU FIT?) Body composition To determine: look at muscle mass, do you look obese? Musculoskeletal Fitness Good muscle endurance: how many bicep curls, and chin-ups can you do? Cardiovascular Fitness Can you run for a long distance? Are you a good marathon runner? Health Related Fitness Those components of fitness that allow you to do activities of daily living. Performance Related Fitness Those components of fitness that enable optimal work or sport performance Physiological Fitness Encompasses both physical fitness and the biological indicators that exhibit a relationship with health status and which are influenced by the level of physical activity, such as blood pressure, glucose tolerance and the blood lipid profile - What is health? Absence of disease and/or symptom Prevention Optimum Wellness Rehabilitation treat for Disease or Death - Spending 10% of economy on health care Sept 17, 2010. First Health Lecture - no notes? take on readings Sept 20, 2010. - Aging - Physiological vs. Chronological - Physiological Age - A person's age as estimated by his or her bodys health and probable life expectancy. Determined by dental age, skeletal age, skin (wrinkles), thinning hair, nose ears get bigger, height loss, or other biological markers (Puberty: onset of menses, sexual development) - In other words, physiological age is influenced by ethnicity, genetics, and health habits. Unhealthy = this age will be higher - Puberty esp. Girls - Age is increasing due to too much estrogens in the water, pesticides - Chronological Aging - refers to the period that has elapsed beginning with an individual's birth and extending to any given point in time. Count from birth day until todays day. How many days have you been alive? Healthy = this age will be higher - Functional declines with age - Brain will shrink with age (dont do drugs, exercise, and often use your brain [crosswords, puzzle instead of TV] will affect brain to not shrink as much - Metabolic rate decrease, burn less calories = dont eat as much - Heart gets weaker = increases chance of cardiac failure (train your heart to keep it lasting longer) - Lung will not be able to function as well, amount of air to be taken in will decrease - Physiological age is helped to determine groupings for competitions (ex. Age vs. body shapes), frequency of medical check-ups, establishing insurance premiums, and counselling for retirement age [Should it be determined by a chronological age or a physiological age?] - Sept 22, 2010. - Anthropometry History started as a way to identify criminals murders have prominent jaws, pickpockets have long hand etc. Myths like: bigger the skull the smarter the person - Anthropometry identifies the 3 body types that you have: Endomorph - relative fatness or leanness Mesomorph - relative muscularity Ectomorph - relative linearity - Somatotype: uses 3 numbers to identify calculation of body type 9-1-1 = extreme Endomorph, 1-9-1= extreme Mesomorph, 1-1-9= extreme Ectomorph [This method is inaccurate] - Sheldon Somatotype- visual inspection (subjective approach) used visual aid (look at someone and say you are a 7-1-1) - Heath & Carter employed anthropometric measurements (objective approach) used calculations - Physical Activity preference according to body type Endomorph dont enjoy weight baring sports, but enjoys weight supporting sports like swimming dont get cold as easily Mesomorph typically anything, but distance runner because they have so much muscle and so much weight to carry while running long distance, likely to get fat if stop exercising, they enjoy to eat but exercise controls their weight Ectomorph enjoy weight bearing sports, but do not enjoy swimming as their insulation becomes an issue - Uses of anthropometric or body structure measurements: Clothing/uniforms Athletic protective equipment helmets, football pads etc. must be their right size to work Modification in furniture (sofas, master chairs), adjustments for handicapped, industrial machinery (male and female screw drivers) ex. Ergonomics Medicine; prosthesis, anaesthetics (too much too little drug during surgery according to body type) Sports Sciences - Biomechanics, physiology (figure out how people walk, best way to swing a golf club etc.) Sept 24, 2010. Health Lecture Sept 27, 2010. - Body Composition (Obesity) equation BMI = weight (kg) / height (m2) equation used for persons 18yrs and older, not used on pregnant and breastfeeding women < 18.5 = underweight = increased risk with developing some health problems 18.5 24.9 = normal weight = least risk 25-29.9 = overweight = increased risk Obesity 30 - BMI not the best measure for obesity, sometime measures muscles and is determined fat ex. Arnold Schwarzenegger. - Skin Folds Yuhasz - uses 6 skin folds in equation Durnin uses 4 skin folds in equation o Stick with one measurement or number will become extremely inaccurate - Abdominal obesity Female bigger in hips is somewhat ok, pot bellies = higher health risks, menopause = increase in obesity = more risk for heart diseases etc. - Male- beer bellies internal fat in stomach is dangerous. Fat under skin is bad - Fat distribution fat stored in different locations are related to health in different ways Female fat stored in hips = pear shape normal may be beneficial to health Male fat stored in abdominal = apple shape risks to heart conditions ** Location of fat in a person is important, indicates whether it is bad or not Sept 29, 2010. - Advantages of fat: 1. Energy storage - mobilized during activity to provide energy. 2. Insulation. 3. Swimming - more buoyant plus less heat loss. 4. Appearance - a limited amount is desirable. - 100kcals = you can walk one mile - Disadvantages of fat: 1. Serious health risks shorter life expectancy 2. More accident prone 3. Extra stress on bones and joints 4. Psychologically damaging society against fatness 5. Make less money, less likely to get promoted - Blood pressure goes up as BMI goes up, higher chance to get Diabetes with higher BMI - Immigration and obesity healthy immigrants will become obese like many in North America - Obesity is increasing in children. More likely if your parents are obese. Shared lifestyle and the genes that they share - This is the first generation that is being thought that the children will not live as long as their parents - Schools are promoting physical education to reduce obesity - Child abuse is now involving obesity issues as it is looked upon as neglect on what their children were eating - Children clothing sizes are being increased to fit the children and make them feel better, and car seats are now bigger as well - Higher childhood BMIs result in adult metabolic abnormities in the future - High Visceral (Inside fat) Fat Increases Cardiovascular Risk, to measure visceral fat, measure waist circumfrence - Liposuction improves appearance but does not improve health problems Oct 04, 2010. - Weight loss one way is to exercise, another way is to eat less - Grehlin produces in stomach - stretches stomach and tells the brain Im hungry however, takes 20mins to message the brain - Leptin fat cells, insulin and substances in your intestines (PYY) also message the brain and stretches to tell the brain that Im full - Leptin strong inhibitor of appetite and food intake - When you eat Leptin goes up Grehlin goes down - Bigger the plate, the more you would eat, smaller portions to eat less Oct 06, 2010. - Individuals still eat food that is in front of them even if it is stale and tastes bad - Sitting closest to the food increases consumption - Seeing a commercial of a food that looks good increases likeliness to go and eat it - The more choices
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