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kin 1020 november

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York University
Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 1020
Kuk/ Riddell

November 2 ndBody Composition - Prof reviewed 10 different types of obesity 1. BMI: Body Mass Index is directly related to mortality risk <18.5 underweight, 18.5-24.9 normal, 25-29.9 overweight, >30 obese 2. DENSITOMETRY: under water weighing in a Bod-Pod. The machine pumps air in and out to calculate your volume. 3. AGE/WEIGHT/HEIGHT TABLES 4. CPAFLA EVALUATION OF BODY WEIGHT, ADIPODITY AND FAT DISTRIBUTION 5. BIO-ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE 6. SKIN FOLD MEASUREMENTS: Mistakes when measuring include improper landmarking and pinching too little skin 7. CADAVER ANALYSIS: the most accurate . it is a chemical analysis that includes the dissection of the human body 8. BIA: Bioelectrocal impedance analysis. Sending a signal through the body. Fat is a bad conductor therefore a person with a lot of fat will not conduct as much electrical energy as someone who has more muscle. 9. DEXA: Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry measures total body density. A low energy x-ray machine is usually used to measure bone density 10.CAT Scan: Computer Assisted Tomography artificially slices your body with X-rays. 11.MRI: Magnetic Resonance Imaging uses magnets to change the spin of your electrons 12.ANTHROPPOMETRY: measurements of the body are taken with a tape measure that has a spring, the spring regulates how the measurements are taken so that they are all accurate, this measurement checks to see if one has central obesity, this is the most accurate measurement of waist circumference in a clinic. - Two types of fat 1. Subputaneous: skinfold fat that is peeled off cadavers 2. Visceral : fat surrounding organs, this fat is the strongest indicator of health risks, commonly there should be 10% visceral fat in men and 5% in person, LOW visceral fat means LOW Triglycerides and HIGH HDL while HIGHT visceral fat means HIGH Triglycerides and LOW HDL - Fat distribution varies between men and women - Ageing effects the compressibility of subputaneous fat - The female and male phenotype 1. PEAR SHAPE (women): high levels of estrogen, low levels of testosterone, fat is stored around hips, body type is GYNOID meaning it is not associated with health risk factors 2. APPLE SHAPE (men): high levels of testosterone, low levels of estrogen, fat stores around waist, body type id ANDROID meaning it enhances the risk of BP, CVD, diabetes and abnormal blood lipids - As women go through menopause, their levels of estrogen decrease. This decrease may lead them to inhibit the apple shape and android body type with high risk of disease - ADVANTAGES of Fat include: 1. Energy storage is mobilized as fat gives us good energy to function in our daily lives 2. Insulation: we are always kept warm 3. Swimming: Fat makes us more buoyant, this is good for long distance swimmers 4. Appearance: a limited amount of fat is desirable as fat in our faces makes us look alive - DISADVANATGES of Fat: 1. Serious health risks include hypertension, cancer, diabetes and CVD. 2. Limited movement: leaving the person accident prone 3. Extra stress on bones 4. Psychologically damaging: poor body image, self esteem 5. Ineffective in motor behaviours November 7 thBody Composition Continued - As the years pass, obesity is increasing - ¼ Canadians have a weight problem - Almost 50% of the population in the territories hve diabetes - Children are also increasing in body weight - Rates of obesity are increasing in children more than they are in adults (400- 500% increase) - Child obesity can be related to child abuse. There are cases where children who are extremely overweight have been taken from their parents. - Liposuction does not improve any health even after removing up to 10kg, the sole benefit is appearance - The only way to lose visceral fat is through diet and exercise as it cannot be liposuctioned out - The qs asked is why are certain individuals obese? nature vs nurture hereditary vs genetics: Claude Bouchard discovered that it is (approx. 25- 40% genetics) is it a cultural influence? (South Asians use butter in their cooking) maybe one should learn what to eat? - Adopted children are similar to their biological parents even without living with them, this proves Claude Bouchard’s statement of genetics - It is said that obesity can be prenatal as women do not need to be eating double. They only need 100-400 calories more when carrying a baby - Many medications are related to weight gain; Diabetic medication, corticosteroid, anti-depressants, anti-psychotics, some anti-hypertensives, antihsitamines and anti convulsants - NEAT: Non Exercise Activity Thermogenesis, out intake must be equal to out expenditure in order to maintain a healthy body weight - We lose weight by simply fidgeting th November 9 - Your true metabolic rate is shown in your 20s - Causes of obesity: sleep deprivation, pollutants, increased maternal age, stress immigration, quitting smoking, assorted mating (mating with those who are similar to you) light exposure, heating and AC, global warming - Not all obese looking people treat their bodies poorly - DIABETES MELLLITUS: “diabainein” means passing through, the name was given by Aretaeus of Cappacodia, Thomas Willis added : “mellitus” meaning “sweet”, “ honey”, this is because of the sweet urine - TYPE ONE: failure of beta cells, diagnosed generally before teenage years, requires insulin injections, blood glucose needs to be monitored - Symptoms: Rapid weight loss, extreme thirst, hunger and fatigue, pain and vomiting, ketosis (when glucose cannot be an energy source) - INSULIN: before its discovery all diabetes patients died, Paul Langerhan notices tissue clumps and as a result they were named the islets of Langerhan, insulin was accidentally discovered by Fredrich Bant
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