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Cardiovascular Disease.docx

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York University
Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 1020
Jennifer Kuk

Cardiovascular Disease Cardiovascular Disease: encompasses any disease associated with the cardiovascular system (coronary artery disease/coronary heart disease) This disease is associated with a gradual narrowing of the coronary arteries resulting from the accumulation of hard deposits of cholesterol (atherosclerosis) These hard deposits are called plaque, this plaque is found on the lining of the vessels If allowed to progress, partial or complete closing of the artery could occur resulting in a myocardial infarction or heart attack A myocardial infarction results in death of some of the cardiac muscle The severity of the disease is determined by where in the coronary artery and how many arteries are involved Leading Causes of Death in Canada 2008 - slide Preventing Heart Problems Physical Activity Diet - fat - good vs bad Fish - omega 3 Vegetables and fruits Fibre and whole grains Soy B vitamins Moderate alcohol - 1 glass = females 2 glass= males Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease (ones that you can control) These risk factor are for ages 20 - 59 years Tobacco, physical inactivity Overweight Poor eating habits Hugh blood pressure Diabetes Risk Factors you cant Control Heredity (genes have a great impact) Race and Ethnicity (Blacks and Asians have a higher incidence of CVD) Age and gender Male pattern Baldness Male pattern baldness slide - more likely to have a heart attack if you are bald High Blood Pressure and CVD = The Silent Killer Lipoprotein Profile Total Cholesterol = LDL+HDL LDL = bad cholesterol (low-density lipoprotein) HDL = good cholesterol (high-density lipoprotein) Cholesterol becomes attached to lipoproteins as it passes through the bloodstream Studies show that this may be the main cause of cholesterol build up in the blood stream HDL carries cholesterol out of the bloodstream for elimination LDL carries cholesterol back into the system for use by various body cells HDL and LDL determine the risk for heart disease Every single cell has a membrane around it and it needs cholesterol in order to make that membrane Plaque develops because of too much cholesterol HDL is like the recycler it goes back and picks up all of the extra cholesterol and fat and brings it back to the liver to be transported Triglycerides and cholesterol are found inside the lipoproteins Triglycerides are the fats in your blood Triglycerides can also be carried free in the blood by albumin Albumin is a protein carrier (like a private taxi - it can only carry the triglycerides) Cholesterol is like the bus - it carries triglycerides and cholesterol around the body Cholesterol comes from your food and your liver of the cholesterol that is in your body is produced by the liver If you consume more saturated fats it will cause yourliver to produce more cholesterol If you eat unsaturated fat it will not produce as much LDL and the liver will promote the production of HDL If you want to decrease your cholesterol level you need to decrease your saturated fat intake How does Cholesterol Metabolism happen? - refer to diagram in notes The liver is the factory where you produce your LDLs, this is where you package you cholesterol and triglycerides The liver regulates how much LDL and HDL is in your blood - #1 When you consume food and you eat more sat and trans fats your liver will produce more LDLs LDLs come more from sat and trans fat than dietary cholesterol - #2 The LDLs are sent to the tissues of the body Cholesterol and triglycerides make VLDLs (very low density lipoprotein) The liver packages cholesterol with triglycerides (fat) and send it into the bloodstream as VLDLs - #3 As
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