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Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 2011
Barbara Czaban

Kine 2011 Dr B Barbara Czaban Rm 342 Chemistry Building 416736 2100 ext 22321 Kine2011yorkuca Tutorials MonWed 330430 ACE 001The Foundation of Physiology Structural and Functional Organization Chapter 1 pg 17 Always a relationship between structural and functionSome Definitions AnatomyThe science of structure and the relationships among structures o ie the study of the structural design of the bodylook at relationship between individual parts too Physiology The science of body functionsStructure of a part determines how it will function o Shape of teeth for tearing and grinding food o Design of heart for receiving and pumping bloodPhysiological mechanisms are possible through structural design o Structurefunction relationshipHeart designed to receive and pump bloodTeeth to tear and grind foodHingelike elbow joint permit bending of the elbow Structure determines how something will function HistologyThe science of the microscopic structure of biological material ways in which individual components are structurally and functionally relatedCellular level Looks at how organelles are organized Anatomy and physiology you will look at the gross function Distinction between each 3 of these are quiet blurredThe Study of PhysiologyStructural organization of the body structural o cells tissues organs systems organism level o how do these associate In order for our structure to function properly it must be organized in a very special way Organization becomes an important components in physiology mechanismsComponentsFunctions of the body system Functional o System related organs with a common functionHow the body systems relate to one another Interactions o Cooperate at organism level o To maintain homeostasis exp Range of body temperature o To maintain healthPhysiological mechanisms developed to enable bodies to acquire and use energyraw materials To buildmaintain molecular cellularbody orderEnergy maintains organizationo Keeps chemical bonds from breaking apart o Thus maintaining molecularcellular order which underlies body existence organizationmetabolism keeping body alive Energy that fuels metabolism comes from the sunother organisms food The body will begin to eat itself without food We are constantly making new cells we need food in our body in order to have cells that grow bigger Raw materials found in food are molecules It is these energy in the chemical bonds that are harvested which is part of the energy that we get when we ingest food maintain the existence of our body and homestatic mechanisms to be maintained Energy holds atoms together Without energy the body will die and therefore our body begins to breakdown and fall apart atoms are separating from each otherRecycling of molecules is important in order to sustain life Get energy and get raw materialsMovement of nutrients chemicals and energy through an ecosystem Important biological macromoleculesfoodCarbohydrates lipids proteins nucleic acid Category Example Subunits Lipids Fat Glycerol and fatty acids Carbohydrates storage of Energy Polysaccharide Monosaccharides Protein Polypeptide Amino acid Nucleic acids DNA RNA Nucleic acidThe body is a collection of atoms held together by chemical bondsThese atomsthe energy to form the chemical bonds holding the atoms together o Come from the environment o ie primarily from food Bodies are highly organized4 major biological molecules o Carbohydrates proteins lipids nucleic acidsCellsTissuesOrgansOrgan systemsOrganism Organization of the atomic level comes together at a level of complexity Cellstissuesorgansorgan systemsorganismLevels of structural Organization From smallest to largest increasing complexity 1 ChemicalSubatomic particles electrons protons neutronsAtoms hydrogen atom oxygen atom carbon atom nitrogen these 4 make up 99 of total body chemistryetcMolecules water molecule glucose molecule etcMacromolecules protein molecule DNA glycogen etc Energy is required to maintain chemical bonds between atoms Small molecules come together to form these macromolecules Atoms are composed of subatomic particles 2 CellularCells the basic structuralfunctional units of an organism o Smallest living units in the human body ie muscle cell cardiac cell etcOrganelles structural components with specific functions within cells o ie mitochondria Energy production ribosomes protein synthesis etc Basic Cell Functionsobtain nutrientsO2 from surrounding environmentperform chemical reactions that provide energy for the cell ie cellular respirationeliminate CO2other wastes to surrounding environmentsynthesize needed cellular componentscontrol exchange of materials between cellits surrounding environmentsenserespond to changes in surrounding environmentsreproduce exception nervemuscle cells lose their ability to reproduce during their early development Everything that an living organism does acell can do as well Cell communication stays attached with each other and then interacting with other groups of cell that may be different from them Cells may get rid of certain atoms if they need to because it may become toxic to the body 3 TissueGroups of cellsmaterial surrounding themWork together to perform a particular function4 types epithelial connective muscular nervous Epithelial tissues Exchange of materials between cells and the environmentCells attached to one another little room for other structures no blood vessels eg skin intestines blood vessels kidney tubules stomach etcUpper surface exposed to body cavity or external environmentBottom surface attached to basement membrane also known as basal lamina2 general types of structures Epithelial sheets Secretory glands o Epithelial sheets that separate the body from external environment and from the contents of cavities that open to the external environmentTightly joined cells to form sheets of tissue that cover and line various parts of the body o Glands specialized in secretionGlands formed during embryonic development by pockets of epithelial tissue dipping inward from the surface Exocrine glands secrete through ducts to outside of body o Exp Sweat glands and glands that secrete digestive juicesEndocrine glands secretory product hormones lack ducts because secretory gland is isolated from surface therefore they release their hormones into the blood o Exp Pancreas release insulin into blood travellingto site of action muscle Consists of tissues that have cells that are tightly joined to one another They line surfaces exp Our skin and the lining of our stomach Cells must adhere to something in order to stay in place Simple cuboidal epitheliumHas cubeshaped cellsOccurs in lining of kidney tubules and on surfaces of ovariesFunctions in protection secretion and absorption Some are secretory exocrine glands others are secretory endocrine glands Connective tissueConnects supports and anchors various body partsRelatively few migratory cells dispersed within extracellular matrix containing collagen elastic and reticular protein fibresDiverse structures o Connective tissue attaches epithelial tissue to underlying structuresTendons attach skeletal muscles to bonesBones gives the body shape support and protectionBlood transport materials from one part of the body to another o Examples tendons loose fibrous bone blood cartilage adipose Loose fibrous connective tissueHas space between componentsOccurs beneath skin and most epithelial layersFunctions in support and binds organsFound in our intestinal tracts Looseness is good because you can fill in more spaces All of these examples have similar structural organization You see the cells in the connective tissues which are not as stuck in one position but flows around There are protein fibers around collagen and elastin There are mass where these fibers are heldDense regular connective tissueEven though they look different from loose fibrous connective tissue they are really the same thingDue to the stretching these are all squished cellsThere is an area where a lot of tension put on this Therefore there are ligaments tendons and muscles coverings Examples of othersHyaline cartilage o Has cells in scattered lacunae o Occurs in nose and walls of respiratory passages at ends of bones including ribs o Functions in support and protectionAdipose tissue o Has cells filled with fat o Occurs beneath skin around organs including the heart o Functions in insulation store fatCompact bone o Has cells in concentric rings of lacunae o Occurs in bones and skeleton o Functions in support and protection Muscle tissueSpecialized for contracting and generating forcedSkeletal muscle moves the skeletonCardiac muscle pumps blood out of the heartSmooth muscle encloses and controls movement of contents through hollow tubes and organs All of these are related to each other with related components Skeletal and cardiac are very organized and functions similarly Nervous tissueFound in the brain spinal cord and nervesConsist of neurons cells specialized for initiatingtransmitting electrical impulseso Excitable cells that form communication lines in nervous systemAlso consists of neuroglia variety of cells that protectsupport neurons structurallymetabolically Some projections on axons are longer than othersNeurogilia are small little cells are associated with parts of the brain nourish 4 Organ2 or more kinds of tissues joined together to form body structuresHave specific functions 4 different tissues may come together and cooperate together to work with the stomach 5 Organ System
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