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Lecture

Anatomy Muscular System notes.docx

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Department
Kinesiology & Health Science
Course
KINE 2031
Professor
Nicolette Bradley
Semester
Fall

Description
Muscular System Muscle Types  Skeletal  Termed striated with Parallel muscle fibers  Under Conscious control of the nervous system  Smooth  Non-striated with non-parallel muscle fibers  Under unconscious control.  Cardiac  Striated with non-parallel muscle fibers  Involuntary muscle of the heart  Under conscious control  Function of Skeletal Muscle  Movement  Contraction causes and inhibits movement  Posture/Balance  Helps maintain posture and balance  Protection  Abdominal muscles protect the abdominal organs  Eyes squint/close to protect underlying tissue  Temperature  Muscles can contract to produce heat  Types of Muscular Contractions  Isometric  Muscle tension with no movement  Example: Plank  Isotonic  Concentric  Tension by shortening the muscle  Example: Curling a dumbbell.  Eccentric  Tension by lengthening the muscle  Example: Negatives  Levers  Contain 3 parts to it  Fulcrum: joint where movement occurs  Force: muscle or gravity that is applied to the moveable bone.  Resistance: the weight being moved  3 types of levers  1 class – similar to a seesaw  Fulcrum in the middle with weight/resistance on either side  Example: Head extension  Fulcrum: Occipital condyl1s & C  Force: posterior muscles of the occipital bone nd  Resistance: Weight of the head.  2 Class – Similar to a wheelbarrow  Fulcrum at the end of the lever, with resistance close to the fulcrum/force further away  Example: Plantar Flexion (Standing on your toes)  Fulcrum: Metatarsal-Phalangeal joint  Force: Attachment of superficial plantar flexor muscles (Gastrocnemius)  Resistance: Weight of the body.  3 class – most of them  Fulcrum at the end of the lever, with resistance toward the end of the lever and force between the resistances.  Example: Elbow flexion by the biceps brachii  Fulcrum: elbow joint  Force: Attachment of the biceps brachii on the radius  Resistance: Weight of the forearm **Basic Knowledge**  O: Origin  Proximal attachment of the trunk (Closest to the trunk)  I: Insertion  Distal attachment of the trunk (Furthest from the trunk)  A: Action  The action of the muscle on one or more articulations Skeletal Muscles: Upper Torso Shoulder Girdle  Trapezius  Origin: Begins at the occipital bone, ligamentum nuchae, and the spines of the thoracic vertebrae  Insertion: Ends at the clavicle, acromion process, and the spine of the scapula  Action: Elevates the scapula, provides upward rotation of the shoulder, adducts the scapula  Example: Shoulder shrug  Rhomboid (Major and Minor)  Origin: Begins at the spinous proces5 of C1an5 T -T  Insertion: Ends at the medial border of the scapula  Action: Adducts the scapula, provides downward rotation of the shoulder  Example: During a chin-up the rhomboids draw the scapula’s medial border down to the spinal column  Serratus Anterior – Shares with the external abdominal oblique  Origin: Begins at the lateral surface of the upper 8 ribs  Insertion: Ends at the medial border of the scapula  Action: Abducts the scapula  Example: “Boxer Muscle” used to help throw a punch  Levator Scapula  Origin: Begins at the transverse process of C -C 1 4  Insertion: Ends at the superior angle of scapula  Action: Elevates the scapula  Example: used with trapezius in shoulder shrug  Pectoralis Minor  Origin: Begins at the outer surface of ribs 3-5  Insertion: Ends at the coracoid process of the scapula  Action: Abduction of the scapula, and provides downward rotation of the shoulder. Shoulder Joint  Deltoid – 3 parts to the deltoid  Spinal Head (Posterior)  Origin: Begins at the spine of the scapula  Insertion: Ends at the deltoid tuberosity  Action: shoulder extension and lateral rotation of humerus  Acromial Head (Lateral)  Origin: Begins at the acromion process of scapula  Insertion: Ends at the deltoid tuberosity  Action: Shoulder abduction  Clavicular Head (Anterior)  Origin: Begins at the clavicle  Insertion: Ends at the deltoid tuberosity  Action: Shoulder flexion, and medial rotation of humerus  Pectoralis Major – most anterior part.  Origin: Begins at the medial part of clavicle/costal cartilage of ribs 1-6  Insertion: Ends at the bicipital groove of the humerus  Action: shoulder extension/flexion, medial rotation/adduction/horizontal flexion of humerus  Latissimus Dorsi  Origin: Begins at the back of the lumbar/thoracic vertebrae  Insertion: Ends at the bicipital groove of the humerus (anterior portion)  Action: Shoulder extension, adduction/medial rotation of the humerus  Rotator Cuff Muscles – 4 parts to it  Supraspinatus  Origin: begins at the supraspinous fossa of the scapula  Insertion: Ends at the Greater tubercle of the humerus  Action: Initiates shoulder abduction  Infraspinatus  Origin: Begins at the infraspinous fossa of the scapula  Insertion: Ends at the Greater tubercle of the humerus  Action: Lateral humerus rotation  Teres Minor  Origin: begins at the lateral border of the scapula  Insertion: Ends at the Greater tubercle below the Infraspinatus  Action: Adducts/laterally rotates the humerus  Subscapularis – medial rotator  Origin: Begins at the subscapular fossa of the scapula (Anterior)  Insertion: Ends at the Lesser tubercle of the humerus (Medial)  Action: Abducts/medially rotates the humerus  Teres Major – blends with the Latissimus Dorsi  Origin: Begins at the lateral border of the scapula  Insertion: Ends at the bicipital groove (front of the humerus)  Action: Shoulder extension/medial rotation of the humerus  Biceps Brachii – 2 parts to it. Bi-articulation (crosses through the glenohumeral joint/elbow joint)  Short Head  Origin: Begins at the coracoid process of the scapula  Insertion: Ends at the radial tuberosity  Action: Shoulder/Elbow flexion  Long Head  Origin: Begins at the supraglenoid tubercle of the scapula  Insertion: Ends at the radial tuberosity  Action: Shoulder/Elbow flexion  Triceps Brachii – 3 Parts to it, Bi-Articulation (crosses through the glenohumeral joint/elbow joint)  Long Head  Origin: Begins at the infraglenoid tubercle of scapula  Insertion: Ends at the olecranon process of the ulna  Action: shoulder/elbow extension  Medial Head  Origin: Begins at the posterior/medial aspect of the humerus  Insertion: Ends at the olecranon process of the ulna  Action: Elbow extension  Lateral Head  Origin: Begins at the lateral aspect of the humerus  Insertion: Ends at the olecranon process of the ulna  Action: Elbow Extension  Coracobrachialis – shoulder + elbow = the brachial  Origin: Begins at the coracoid process of the scapula  Insertion: Ends at the medial shaft of the humerus (Brachialis)  Action: shoulder flexion Elbow Joint  Brachialis  Origin: Begins at the anterior shaft of the humerus  Insertion: Ends at the coronoid process of the ulna/ulnar tuberosity  Action: Elbow flexion  Broachioradilais  Origin: Begins at the shaft of the humerus, above lateral epicondyle  Insertion: Ends at the styloid process of the radius  Action: Elbow flexion when forearm is semi-pronated  Supinator  Origin: Begins at the lateral epicondyle of the humerus  Insertion: Ends at the anterolateral surface of the radius (Distal to radial tuberosity)  Action: Supinates the forearm, assists in elbow extension  Pronator Teres – first muscle on the lateral side  Origin: begins on the medial epicondyle of the humerus  Insertion: Ends at the lateral surface of the radius, same as supinator  Action: Pronates the forearm, assists in elbow flexion Muscle on the anterior of the Forearms – Used in flexion  Palmar Aponeurosis  Layer of tendon covering the palm of the hand  Insertion of Palmaris Longus  Protects vessels/tendons of the palm  Flexor Retinaculum  From the lateral carpal bone to medial carpal bone  Carpal Tunnel is formed with concave configuration  Most tendons pass under the retinaculum  First Layer of the Anterior Forearm Muscles – 4 muscles on superficial part in anatomical position.  Flexor Carpi Radialis – middle finger  Origin: Begins at the medial epicondyle of the humerus nd rd  Insertion: Ends at the base of 2 /3 metacarpals, under retinaculum  Action: Elbow/Wrist flexion and wrist abduction  Palmaris Longus – Ring Finger  Origin: Begins at the medial epicondyle of the humerus  Insertion: Ends at the palmar aponeurosis  Action: Elbow/wrist flexion.  Passes over the retinaculum  Flexor Carpi Ulnaris – Little Pinky  Origin: Begins at the medial epicondyle of the humerus/upper ulna th  Insertion: Ends at the pisiform. Hamate carpals, base of 5 metacarpal  Action: Elbow/Wrist flexion and wrist adduction  Passes under the retinaculum  Sesmoid bone is embedded in the tendon  2 Layer of the Anterior Forearm Muscles  Flexor Digitorum Superficialis  Origin: Begins at the medial epicondyle of the humerus/coronoid process/shaft of radius  Insertion: Ends at the four tendons attaching to the medial phalanx of the medial digits  Action: Elbow/wrist/metacarpal-phalangeal/interphalangeal joint flexion rd  3 layer of the Anterior Forearm Muscles  Flexor Digitorum Profundus  Origin: Begins at the upper anterior of the ulna/interosseous membrane  Insertion: Ends at the distal phalanx of the 4 medial digits st nd  Action: flexion at the wrist/metacarpal-phalangeal/1 and 2 interphalangeal joints.  Flexor Pollicis Longus  Origin: Begins at the anterior shaft of the radius  Insertion: ends at the distal phalanx of the thumb  Action: Flexion of the wrist/carpal-metacarpal/ metacarpal- phalangeal/interphalangeal joint. th  4 layer of the Anterior Forearm Muscles  Pronator Quadratus – at the wrist for the forearm  Origin: Distal end of the ulna  Insertion: Distal end of the radius  Action: Pronates the forearm **Synovial membrane allows for the passage of tendons, the membrane gives a smooth surface to slide in. **  Muscles on the Posterior of the Forearm – Used in extension  Superficial Extensor Muscles – 4 of them  Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus  Origin: Begins above the lateral epicondyle of the humerus, below brachioradialis nd  Insertion: Ends at the base of the 2 metacarpal  Action: Wrist extension/abduction  Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis  Origin: Begins at lateral epicondyle of the humerus  Insertion: Ends at the base of 3 metacarpal  Action: Wrist extension/abduction  Extensor Digitorum Communis  Origin: Begins at the lateral epicondyle of the humerus  Insertion: Ends at the dorsal end of medial four digits  Action: extension at Wrist/metacarpal- phalangeal/interphalangeal joint  Second tendon of the little finger is termed Extensor Digiti Minimi  Sent by the extensor Digitorum to the little pinky.  Extensor Carpi Ulnaris  Origin: Begins at the lateral epicondyle of the humerus th  Insertion: Ends at the base of the 5 metacarpal  Action: Wrist extension/adduction  Only muscle on the lateral side helping for abduction  Deeper Extensor Muscles  Abductor Pollicis Longus  Origin: Begins at the proximal dorsal surface of radius/ulna and interosseous membrane  Insertion: Ends at the metacarpal of the thumb  Action: Extend wrist/abducts the thumb  Extensor Pollicis Longus  Origin: Begins at the posterior surface of the ulna/interosseous membrane  I
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