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Anatomy 2031 Tissues

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Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 2031
Neil Smith

Tissues – four kinds of tissues: epithelial, nervous, connective, and muscular. - Tissues are groups of similar cells that perform together to serve a specialized function. Figure 1. Different types of tissues Function of epithelial tissue: 1. Physical protection/barrier eg. Skin @ outer layer a. Acts as selective barrier between environment and internal structures 2. Absorption – regulates the transport of substances into the body eg. Small intestines 3. Sensations – Specialized sensory receptors derived from epithelial tissues eg. Cones and rods of retina, olfactory in the nose and taste buds 4. Secretion – release of ‘things’ specialized secreting epithelial tissues known as glands a. Exocrine – secretes to outside via ducts b. Endocrine – secretes hormones into blood stream Structure of epithelial – sits on top of basement membrane. (Figure 2) - Thin extracellular layer that separates epithelial from underlying connective tissues. - Acts as regulator for movement of molecules to deeper connective tissues - Acts to anchor epithelium to underlying connective tissues - Blacks chance molecules such as virus. Figure 2. Structure of Epithelial Classification of Epithelial tissue Shape a. Squamous – irregular sides flat, thin and wide. b. Cubodial – thicker and cubes c. Columnar – Column looking like (long skinny) Layers a. Simple – one single layer b. Stratified – multiple layers Types of Epithelium Simple squamous – digestive tract, absorption Simple cuboidal – absorption (nephron, kidneys) water absorption is most optimal Simple columnar: a. Non-ciliated – microvilli increases surface area for better absorption and secretion a. Goblet cells to produce mucin (digestive) b. Ciliated – hair like projections (goblets present) uterine and respiratory tract Figure 3a. Non-ciliated microvilli - Epithelial Figure 3b. Ciliated epithelium Stratified Squamous – adopted for protection (epidermis of skin) Stratified cuboidal – protection, lining of ducts and glands (exocrine) Stratified columnar – deep and plenty of protection, (male uretha and front of eyeball) Psuedostratified ciliated columnar – Fake layers every cell attached to basement membrane. respiratory system pushes up and out with mucin. Transitional epithelium – can flatten/thicken eg bladder when full they thinner and flat. When empty they are thick. 2. Connective tissues - Connective tissue proper (loose and dense) - Cartilage - Bone - Blood Development of Connective Tissues Mesenchyme are nonspecific embryological connective tissue. Functions of connective tissues: Support – bone forms framework and a place for muscle attachment - Cartilage forms frame work for structures like bronchi - Connective tissue proper forms capsules for organs Bind – Ligaments are bone to bone, tendons are muscle to bone Storage – Fat as connective tissue stores energy (adipose tissue) or bone is storage for calcium and phosphorous. Transport – Blood transport nutrients, waste and hormones. Protection – Adipose tissue protect vital organs like the kidneys as do skeletal protects brain, spinal cord, heart and lungs. Immune protections – connective tissue contain WBC to destroy poathogens. Connective tissue proper – comes divided into two categories: 1. Connective tissue proper loose 2. Connective tissue proper dense Connective Tissue Proper Loose – Areolar, Adipose, Reticular 1. Areolar – least specialized broad function, holds water around capillaries a. Found in almost all different type of cells and fibers - Fibroblasts are cells in Areolar tissue that produce protein fibers and ground substance (Viscous fluid, colour-less solution – tissue filler added extra support and movement of nutrients) i. Collagen (white) – strong, flexible yet resistant to stretching ii. Elastic (Yellow) – made of elastin; allow for stretch and recoil iii
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