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Digestive System

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York University
Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 2031
Neil Smith

Mouth – site where mechanic and chemical breakdown occur Teeth – 32 Permanent teeth – top row are duplicated by the same named teeth in the bottom row rd 2 x ( 2 Central Incisors, 2 Lateral Incisors, 2 Canine, 2 Premolar and 6 Molar [3 are wisdom classified as vestigial]) Salivary Glands – The body has three pairs of salivary glands (saliva breaks down carbohydrates) 1. Parotid Gland – Located outside the mouth, Similar to putty pushed into the cavity just in front of the ear. Because it is superficial it is protected by capsule nd rd a. Duct goes forward across the Masseter muscle, pierces cheek muscle (2 -3 molar) and empties into mouth. 2. Submandibular Gland – inside surface of the mandible bone. The duct opens under the tongue via two openings (under the tongue is called Frenulum) 3. Sublingual Gland – Gland lays on the floor of the mouth and follows the inside of the mandible. Ducts release saliva onto the floor of the mouth Tongue – anchored to the floor of the mouth by a fold of mucous membrane (Lingual Frenulum) - Dorsal surface of the tongue has series of bumps termed papillae - Taste buds, cilia and nerve endings Esophagus – Smooth muscle tube that starts from the bottom of the Larynx. Tracks down the thorax and in a wave like motion (contracts) bringing food (bolous) through the diaphragm and empties into the stomach. - Cardiac Orfice/Sphincter: opening located where esophagus enters the stomach, smooth muscle thickens to form a valve. o Prevents stomach contents from regurgitating back into the esophagus Stomach – The expanded portion of the digestive system, site where physical and chemical digestion occurs - Distended means full, stretched out *note the stomach can be very stretchy Greater Curvature – Bottom curve of the pouch that is directed downward and to the left Lesser Curvature – Top of the pouch upwards and right Fundus – Superior/lateral dome shape portion of the stomach Body – main portion of the stomach Gastric glands, located at the depression in the inner lining of the stomach. - Mucous Cells produces mucous to protect the stomach lining - Parietal cells produce HCl (breaks down protein) - Chief cells produces digestive enzymes Pyloric Region – Distal end of the stomach where begins to narrow prior to S.I. - Pyloric Orifice/Sphincter located at distal end of stomach where it will become the duodenum o Regulates the dumping of contents into the doudenum Small Intestines has three sections: 1. Duodenum - (10inches) – C-shaped wraps itself around the head of the Pancreas a. The ducts from the pancreas open up into the Duodenum (Pancreatic Duct) b. Common Bile Duct also opens into the Duodenum using the Pancreatic Duct c. Contains fingerlike projections termed Villi, ↑ SA. i. Within each Villi there are capillaries to absorb nutrients and parts of the Lymphatic system (Central Lacteal) – absorbs lipids too large to be picked up by capillary 2. Jejunum
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