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Lecture

Muskuloskeletal-System.pdf

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Department
Kinesiology & Health Science
Course
KINE 2031
Professor
Kuk/ Riddell
Semester
Fall

Description
The Skeletal SystemOverviewMajor StructuresRelated Combining FormsPrimary FunctionsBonesosse ossi osteo ostoAct as the framework for the body protects the internal organs and stores the mineral calciumBone MarrowmyeloRed bone marrow forms some blood cellsalso means spinal cordYellow bone marrow stores fatCartilagechondroCreates a smooth surface for motion within the jointsand protects the ends of the bonesJointsarthroWork with the muscles to make a variety of motionspossibleLigamentsligamentoConnect one bone to anotherSynovial Membranesynovio synovoForms the lining of synovial joints and secretes synovial fluidSynovial Fluidsynovio synovoLubricant that makes smooth joint movementspossibleBursabursoCushions areas subject to friction during movementStructures and Functions of the Skeletal SystemThe skeletal system consists of the bones bone marrow cartilage joints ligaments synovial membranesynovial fluid and bursaimportant functions Bones act as the framework of the body Bones support and protect the internal organs Joints work in conjunction with muscles ligaments and tendons making possible the wide variety ofbody movements Calcium which is required for normal nerve and muscle function is stored in bones Red bone marrow which has an important function in the formation of blood cells is located withinspongy boneThe Structure of BonesBone is the form of connective tissue that is the second hardest tissue in the human body Only Dentalenamel is harder than boneThe Tissues of BoneAlthough it is a dense and rigid tissue bone is also capable of growth healing and reshaping itselfis the tough fibrous tissue that forms the outermost covering of bonePeriosteum peri means surrounding ost means bone and um is a noun endingCompact boneis the dense hardand very strong bone that forms the protective outer layer of bonesSpongy boneis lighter and not as strong as compact bone This type of bone is comonly found in ends and inner portions of long bones such as the femur Red bone marrow is locatedwithin this spongy boneMedullary cavityis located in the shaft of a long bone and is surrounded by compact bone medullary means pertaining to the inner sectionEndosteumis the tissue that lines the medullary cavity end means within oste means bone um is a noun endingBone MarrowRed bone marrowwhich is located within the spongy bone is hemopoietic tissue that manufactures redblood cells hemoglobin white blood cells and thrombocyteshemopoietic means pertaining to the formation of blood cellshemomeans blood and poietic means pertaining to formationThis term is also spelled hematopoieticYellow bone marrowwhich functions as a fat storage area is composed chiefly of fat cells and is locatedin the medullary cavityCartilageCartilageis the smooth rubbery bluewhite connective tissue that acts as a shock absorber between bones Cartilage which is more elastic than bone also makes up the flexibleparts of the skeleton such as the outer ear and the tip of the noseArticular cartilagecovers the surfaces of bones where they come together to form joints This cartilagemakes smooth joint movement possible and protects the bones from rubbing against each otherMeniscusis the curved fibrous cartilage found in some joints such as the knee and the temporomandibular joint of the jawAnatomic Landmarks of BonesDiaphysisis the shaft of a long boneEpiphysiswhich is covered with articular cartilage is the wide end of a long bone The proximalepiphysis is the end of the bone located nearest to the midline of the body Thedistal epiphysis is the end of the bone located farthest away from the midlineForamenis an opening in a bone through which blood vessels nerves and ligaments pass plural foramina eg the spinal cord passes through the foramen magnum of theoccipital boneProcessis a normal projection on the surface of a bone that serves as an attachment formuscles and tendonseg the mastoid process is the bony projection located ontemporal bones just behind the earsJointsJoints which are also known as articulations are the place of union between two or more bones Joints areclassified according to either their construction or based on the degree of movement they allowFibrous JointsFibrous Joints consisting of inflexible layers of dense connective tissue hold the bones tightly together Inadults these joints which are also known as sutures do not allow any movement In newborns and very young children some fibrous joints are movable before they have solidifiedFontanellesalso known as the soft spots are normally present on the skull of a newborn Theseflexible soft spots facilitate the passage of the infant through the birth canal They also allow for the growth of the skull during the first year As the child matures and the sutures close the fontanelles gradually hardenCartilaginous JointsCartilaginous Joints allow only slight movement and consist of bones connected entirely by cartilageegCartilaginous joints such as where the ribs connect to the sternumbreast bone These jointsallow movement during breathingThe pubic symphysis is the cartilaginous joint known that allows some movement to facilitatechildbirth This joint is located between the pubic bones in the anteriorfront of the pelvisIn a symphysis two bones join and are held firmly together so that they function as one boneSynovial JointsA synovial joint is created where two bones articulate to permit a variety of motions As used here the termarticulate means to come together These joints are also described based on their type of motionBall and such as the hips and shoulders allow a wide range of movement in many directionssocket jointsHinge Jointssuch as the knees and elbows are synovial joints that allow movement particularly in one direction or planeComponents of Synovial JointsSynovial joints also known as diarthrodial joints are the movable joints of the body consists of several components that make complex movements possibleSynovial capsuleis the outermost layer of strong fibrous tissue that resembles a sleeve as it surroundsthe jointSynovial membranelines the capsule and secretes synovial fluidSynovial fluidwhich flows within the synovial cavity acts as a lubricant to make the smoothmovement of the joint possibleLigamentsare bands of fibrous tissue that form joints by conecting one bone to another boneor joining a bone to cartilage Complex hinge joints such as the knee are made up ofa series of ligaments that permit movement in different directionsBursais a fibrous sac that acts as a cushion to ease movement in areas that are subject tofriction such as in the shoulder elbow and knee joints where a tendon passes overa bone plural bursaeThe Skeleton
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