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Connective Tissue Lecture Notes Clear and concise notes taken during lecture. (Received an A+)

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Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 2031
Neil Smith

Connective Tissue  Two types of connective tissue proper Loose connective tissue  Areolar “Airy”: Watery loose characteristic or rubbery in cartilage  Fibroblast: Fibre forming cell found in connective tissue  Collagen fibres: Largest fibres, made of protein, extremely resilient and strong but rubbery  Elastic fibres: Stretching and recoiling fibres  Reticular fibres: Very thin collagen fibres that form a network, acts as a binding material for separating organs, structural  Adipose: Fatty tissue for energy storage, protection of organs Dense connective tissue  “Parallel” fibre placement. Ex in tendons  Not stretchy because you want optimal lengthening and shortening of muscle (Don’t want to waste energy in stretching the tendon)  Ligaments have a little bit of elastic fibres (vs none in tendons)  Ligamentum nuchae: High amount of elastic fibres in this ligament (Located on back of the neck) o Our heads are heavier in the front  Cartilage=Chrondro  Membrane surrounding cartilage: Perichondrium  Cartilage is the precursor of actual bone in fetal development  Elastic cartilage has elastic fibres o Found in ear  Fibrocartilage is extremely strong, composed of collagen fibres o Found between the vertebrae Skeleton  Main function is support and protection, also storage of minerals (calcium) Two types of bone:  Compact bone: Very dense  Spongy bone o It lightens the bone, the columns (trebeculi) will align to resist the stress placed upon them  The membrane around the bone is the periosteum which supplies it with nutrients  Bone develops from fetal hyaline cartilage  First the ossification begins in the shaft, secondary at the ends  Epiphyseal plates produce cartilage and there is no more growth in the shaft  Finally, the bone stops growing when the cartilage is no longer growing  Axial skeleton includes the skull and spine  Appendicular skeleton includes the appendages Articulations 1. Fibrous articulations are immovable (Found in your mouth connecting your teeth, skull sutures, interosseous membrane between the bones of the forearm) 2. Slightly moveable with cartilage 3. Synovial articulations are freely moveable found between joints  Sutures are the immovable articulations of the skull Movement  Flexion is a decrease in angle, extension is an increase in angle  Abduction is towards the centre, adduction is away from the centre  Pronation is towards the midline of the body, supination is away the midline of the body  For hands, abduction and adduction is relative to the axial line (down the middle finger)  For feet, dorsi flexion is to lift your toes, plantar is going on your tiptoes Axial Skeleton  24 Vertebrae  A typical vertebrae consists of: o Body on the anterior side o Transverse process that go off to the side (connected to muscle and other bones) o Sinous process goes off the posterior side o Vertebral arch is made of lamina and pedicle Cervical Vertebrae  C7 on your neck is the very pronounced vertebrae o Used as a “landmark”  C1: “Atlas”—your whole head rests on it o Unique because it has no body  C2: “Axis”—has a post that allows C1 to rotate on  C3-C5: Little movement between the vertebrae but in totality allows more mobility Thoracic Vertebrae  Connected to the ribs  12 vertebrae  Limits individual vertebral movement but total movement of the thoracic region is the greatest o No rotation  Rib is connected to the sternum by costal cartilage Lumbar Vertebrae  Do n
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