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Upper Limb Muscles Clear and concise notes taken during lecture. (Received an A+)

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Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 2031
Neil Smith

Upper Limb Muscles Muscles that move the pectoral girdle Anterior  Pectoralis Minor: abducts (protracts) the scapula o Also superiorly rotates the scapula (abduction of the arms)  Serratus Anterior: abducts (protracts) the scapula o Agonist in scapular protraction o Also superiorly rotates the scapula o Used in throwing a baseball, also called the boxer’s muscle as it’s used in throwing a punch Posterior  Levator Scapulae: Elevates the scapula o Also used in inferiorly rotating scapula (adduction of the arms)  Rhomboid (Major & Minor): Elevates and adducts (retracts) the scapula o Also used in inferiorly rotating scapula  Trapezius: does everything but inferiorly rotate the scapula because it inserts along the spine of the scapula Refer to Table 12.1 (pg. 358) Humeral movements  Pectoralis Major: Principle flexor of the arm  Latissimus Dorsi: Principle extensor of the arm (antagonist to the Pectoralis Major) o Both are involved in adduction (dumbbell flys) and medial rotation (belly drum) of the humerus  Coracobrachialis: Synergistic with the Pectoralis Major in flexion of the arm  Teres Major: Synergistic with the Latissimus Dorsi in extension of the arm o Both of the above are also involved in adduction and medial rotation of the humerus  Deltoid: Prime abductor of the arm o Spinal (posterior): involved in lateral rotation and extension of the arm o Acromial (centre): involved in abduction of the arm o Clavicular (anterior): involved in medial rotation and flexion of the arm “Rotator Cuff”  Subscapularis: Used in winding up for the pitch (medial rotation of the arm)  Supraspinatus: Used in throwing the ball (abduction of the arm) o Initiates abduction of the arm, then the deltoid takes over, past 90 degrees Trapezius and Serratus Anterior superiorly rotate the scapula to facilitate further movement  Infraspinatus: Follow through the pitch, adduct and laterally rotate the arm  Teres Minor: Same as above Refer to Table 12.2 (pg. 360) Forearm flexion and extension Anterior (Flexors)  Bicep Brachii: Involved in flexion of the forearm (also humeral flexion, slightly) o Both the long and short heads insert at the radial tuberosity so they are involved in forearm supination  Brachialis: Most powerful flexor of the forearm  Brachioradialis: Synergist in forearm flexion, effective when the forearm is already partially flexed or semi-pronated Posterior (Extensors)  Triceps Brachii: Antagonistic to the Bicep Brachii o All three heads insert on the olecranon of the ulna o Only the long head is involved in humeral extension because it originates above the shoulder Refer to Table 12.4 (pg. 365) Forearm muscles  Pronator Teres: involved in pronation of the forearm (located anterior)  Supinator: involved in supination of the forearm (located posterior)  The tendons of the forearm are surrounded by synovial sheaths that reduce friction Anterior  All the flexors originate from the medial epicondyle of the humerus  Three layers: superficial, intermediate, and deep (profundis)  Palmar Ap
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