Sept 30, 2009
-measures the average of scores(deviation) from the mean. It takes into account all scores in the
distribution and not just the highest and lowest ones. The greater the variability or spread of scores, the
higher the standard deviation.
-important for 2 reasons:
− most pyschological variables are normally distributed.
− It provides a precise way of determining how people compare to one another on a given test
Percentile scores: indicate the percentage of people who score of an below the score you obtained.
Its a score that is compared relatively to rest of the people.
Inferential Stats: inferential stats provides us with a way of determining how much confidence we can
have in results obtained from samples by telling us how likely it is that results are due to chance alone.
Real: true of population=Statistically significant
probability level is what we look at if the results are statistically significant or not.
Statistical cut off: if the results are lower than 0.05 then the results are real-significant.
If they are higher then 0.05 then the results are due to chance and not statistically
PSYCHOANALYTIC APPROACH (SIGMUND FREUD)
− We re governed by unconscious conflicts
according to frued: instincts are the basic building blocks of his theory. Everybody is born with two
types of instincts
1. life instincts
2. death instincts
libido: sexual instincts
Structures of Personality:
• contains the insticts • only structure present at birth
• it is unconscious and has no contact with reality