December 7, 2009
.One piece in the Excel that has not been covered is the Pivot Tables.
.Start with some data and what you would like to be able to do is use the
.He will skip the steps involved.
.You do need to understand the output.
.Turn notes to page 266
.Construct your Pivot Table by dragging the field buttons on the right to
the diagram on the left.
.On the right hand side is the list for the field names example: ID
number, Sec, Year of St, Faculty, GPA.
.Drag any one of these icons and you put it in one of three places.
Column, row, or data.
.Points 1 & 2 indicate how you want to organize the data.
.Location #3 is what are you going to analyze.
.Under Faculty and Year of Study is how you want to organize it GPA.
.The last thing is to decide what analysis you want to do.
.He wants to get an average GPA.
.Double click on the icon GPA and select Average it changes it shows
Average of GPA.
.Then put it into your worksheet.
.Notice you want to organize by Faculty and Year of Study this is exactly
how the table breaks it down.
.On an exam you should be able if he gives you a Pivot Table and know
what that means.
.Example what's the average GPA of third year science students?
.Or he could give you another example and ask you how you create this.
.To rearrange the Pivot Table he clicks somewhere in the Pivot Table and
.Example student has done this, and what would be the output from this?
.How will it look when it is finished?
.Analyze GPA - whichever variable goes first is the major category of the
.Notice we had Faculty first, notice the breakdown.
.Arts, Science and then the gender comes after that female/male.
.If he switched it around and put Faculty after it would be broken down
by Females/Males, etc.
Page 1 of6 .The variable first is the main variable and the other is the second
.Exam could have the previous slide and show which output is correct?
.Or he could say here is the output what is the method to create that and
give you the previous slide plus four or five slides.
.Understand the big picture.
.How do you decide what goes down the column?
.It doesn't really matter the information will be the same information
.Page 120 in course kit.
.Talking about epidemiological studies and what the output looks like.
>Two broad categories
-Descriptive - identify patterns for disease for injury.
.You might notice in a particular factory workers are being injured more
possibly because of new equipment.
.High rates of diabetes as an example.
-Analytical - you attempt to determine causes.
.You might find that a cause might be people who are getting adult onset
diabetes are more overweight than others who are not getting it.
.This could be a cause.
.This is not an actual experiment you could say this appears to be the
-Observe a group of people [cohort] over a period of time
-Look for differences in disease as a function of exposure to a
-Compare people who have the "problem" with those who do not have the
.Example these people have the disease and this group does not.
.This group never exercises and this group does not.
Other Types of Research
>Meta-analysis-integrate the findings from many different studies.
.You end up taking the results from many experiments combine them
together and find out what is happening.
.You create a super group.
-Integrate-use several similar groups’ data to create a "super group"
Page 2 of6 -discriminatory - look at differences between groups to explain different
types of findings.
.Example why is eating chocolate bad for you?
.Why is chocolate good for you?
A Meta-analysis of Coffee Drinking, Cigarette Smoking and the Risk of
Parkinson ’s disease.
>Conduct a study compiling previous research....(Professor changed
.Finding articles from reliable sources that contain valid data
Are the articles that have the keywords useful? NO
.case-control and cohort studies....
.Organizing data through tables and charts that you