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Lecture 4

Lecture 4 - Jan 16th.docx

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Humber College
Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 3012
Tara Haas

Extra slides Page 5 - Normal compliance, a normal individual is like this - Decreased compliance, the lung is harder to inflate, take in air *stretch*, uses more energy to breathe - Increased compliance, the lung is easier to inflate *Why do we not want this?*, means that the lung is harder to deflate after breathing in - Increased compliance = Decreased stiffness - Decreased compliance = Increased stiffness Page 21 1) Stretchability - Elastic band component, comprised mostly of spongy tissue that snaps back by itself - Also contains connective tissue, holds the alveoli to bronchi, gives support - Connective tissue is not elastic, they can rip/tear - Amount of connective tissue in your lungs determines your stretchability - The more connective tissue, harder to stretch 2) Surface tension at air-water interface - Water molecules are attracted to each other - We have substance in our body to prevent water from collecting - Water tension reduces expansion of the alveoli causing more energy to be used to breathe Page 22 - Surfactant, breaks the attachment between water molecules allowing lungs to expand much easier - Reduces the work of our breathing - The increased work load may not affect much, but over a long period of time, the increased work would cause failure of lungs at old age - Law of Laplace, P = 2T/R *T= tension, R= Radius* - 2 open containers, in a situation where 1 is smaller and 1 is bigger - Same amount of surfactant and water molecules in each alveolus - Because there is smaller radius, the surfactant and water molecules become more concentrated - Thus, less surface tension within the smaller alveolus Page 23 - F = delta P/R --> flow is inversely proportional to resistant - Airway resistance is normally very low - Dependent variables: a) Tube length (fixed) *Don't worry about it* b) interactions between gas molecules (variables) *temperature, hot air easier to breathe in*, helium is lighter than oxygen/hydrogen, because of different composition, when air moves faster through your throat, your voice changes* c) airway radius (regulated) --> by far most important Physical factors - When it's harder to breath, we increase the volume of the lungs - We decreased intrapleural pressure, t
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