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Lecture 3

KINE 3020 Week 3 Reading Notes Mosher.docx

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Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 3020
Merv Mosher

Reading 11:  Direct method to study vision in motor control is to record eye movements  Researcher can play a film and have performer watch it observing where and which parts the eye fixates, Or they can measure eye movements while performer is doing the action  Tennis study (2002), skilled players fixated more on the hip-trunk/head-shoulder area, less skilled focused on racquet  Temporal Occlusion Procedure: investigates the amount of time needed for a person to gather the information they need to perform a movement. o Abernathy study: badminton players shown video with deliberate pauses embedded. When a pause occurred they were asked to predict where the shuttle would land. Based on how accurate the player was, and when the decision was made, researchers could determine at what point the player made the decision o Lab based temporal occlusion procedures are very generalizable to the external population  Event Occlusion Procedure: identifying specific visual information a person uses to make the required response o Part of the movement is covered so the observer does not fully see what is going on o Second part of the same Abernathy study, observer asked to predict where the shuttle would land, given that they could not see the arm, racquet, head, leg, positions. The purpose of this procedure is to determine what information is used to predict where the shuttle would land. If the person was wrong consistently, then the portion of the video that is covered belongs to the information they use to predict where the shuttle will land  Monocular vs. Binocular vision: Motor systems functions more efficiently when information is gathered by both eyes o binocular vision more important for depth perception o Harder to be more accurate and efficient with one eye as distance from object increases o When told to only use one eye, people will adjust their heads in such a way that will allow for maximum information to be gathered by that one eye o Binocular vision provides better movement control, also allows us to view things better in 3D  Central Vision: AKA foveal vision detects information in with the middle 2-5 degrees of the field of vision  Peripheral Vision: detects information in the visual field outside these limits  Visual Field extends approx. 200 degrees horizontally, 160 degrees vertically o peripheral vision gives CNS info about context about the environment o Central Vision gives information about the object itself, such as size and shape of the object o Peripheral vision assesses optical flow  Optical Flow: the pattern of rays of light that strike the retina of the eye from all parts of the environment  Visual system is 2 separate systems that operate in parallel with one another o kinetic visual channel responsible for processing peripheral information o Static visual channel responsible for processing central vision information, slow speed movements. o Two visual systems referred to as the ventral stream o Vision for perception pathway process visual information via a cortical pathway leading from the primary visual cortex to temporal lobe o Vision for action pathway send information from primary visual cortex to the posterior parietal cortex. o We are consciously aware of information processed by central vision but not of information process
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