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L2-Theory of PMD Good if you missed class Slides in black. My notes in blue.

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York University
Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 3340
Yvette Munro

Growth, Maturation & Physical Activity – Theory of Human Motor Development L2 – Theory of HMD January 17, 2011 If early indulgent or repressed problem that will stay w/ you for the rest of life *Healthy mvmnt btw these phases Avangard? Look this word up avant-garde (ˌævɒŋˈɡɑːd, French avɑɡard) — n 1. those artists, writers, musicians, etc, whose techniques and ideas are markedly experimental or in advance of those generally accepted Theoretical Models/ Frameworks of Human Development •Human development may be viewed through various theoretical frameworks – each with implications for movement and motor development •Phase-stage theories (Freud, Erikson) (Most popular childhood links) •Developmental task/milestone theories (Piaget) •Ecological theory (Bronfenbrenner)  systems, rel’p to world around us Psychoanalytic Theory (Freud – 1923) Victorian Period – strict gender roles, sexuality repressed Body/mind •Development through psychosexual phases •Primal pleasure motivation – interaction between id, ego and superego •Phases of psychosocial development –Oral (birth to 1) – mouth –Anal (1 – 3 ) – anus (potty training) New discovery –Phallic (3 – 6) – genitals (sex differences) –Latent (6 – puberty) – dormant sexual feelings –Genital (puberty – adulthood) – sexual feelings re-unleash, reintroduce sources of pleasure Significant theorist cuz 1 to understand “phases” Children are not mini-adults -motor behaviour link (pleasure), psychological, physical, emotional (mind/body, physiology, psychology) Psychosocial theory (Erikson 1963) Influenced by Freud Not sexual Ages and stages  social complex puts pressure on internal/external drive •Development through phases with primary developmental task/focus •internally driven and social pressure •Refer to Table 2.2 Trust world or not? Autonomy vs. doubt/shame @ what phase & stage met w/ challenge? How did deal with it? Overcome it? Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Theories based on observation (opinion) not too scientific Children are not intellectually void, have own logic, not just thoughtless vacuum that sucks up info, not sponge Constantly adapting and changing Piaget was a child genius 4 Distinct Phases (focus more later in the course) 1. Sensorimotor – Birth to 2 yrs (learn through senses) 2. Preoperational – 2 to 7 yrs (simple logic) 3. Concrete operational – 7 to 11 yrs (basic logic systems) 4. Formal operational – achieved in early adolescence to late adolescence (12 yrs +) (abstract thinking) Cognitive development occurs through process of adaptation. Adaptation is adjusting to the demands of the environment and the intellectualization of that adjustment through two complementary acts 1. assimilation (Take new knowledge & assimilate it to existing knowledge (dog, right and wrong, truth) 2. accommodation •mvmnt and understanding our world Ecological theories (Urie Bronfenbrenner – 1970s) Current Make a lot of sense Combine theories •What people are typically like AND why these changes occur -ages,stages Eclectic approach •A practical/contextual theory (considering one’s development in relation to environmental/historical context) -Society related •Micro-system (family, school); mesosystem (interactions between micros); exosystem (external social influencers); macrosystem (culture) and chronosystem (sociohistorical) – refer to Figure 2.2. How do we study psychomotor development •Human behaviour is not compartmentalized – rather – there is a complex system of constant, reciprocal interactions among an individual’s cognitive, affective, motor and physical being. In addition, these interactions are further impacted by sociological and environmental factors. Meshed/connected •Studying psychomotor development during infancy and childhood without consideration of the overall experience of infant/child development and factors impacting such development would be too limited in scope. Cognitive Affective Psychomotor Physical Environmental Sociological How do we describe and explain psychomotor development Catelogue early studies Maturity not everyone gets there •Prior to 1980s, interest in PMD focussed on observing/cataloguing data with little interest in developmental models leading to theoretical explanations of motor behaviour •Did not answer – what lies underneath the process of PMD and how the process occurs? •… imagine that you observed a number of two-year olds developing language skills but had no idea of how they learned or how you could help them to learn… Developing a theoretical model of PMD Developmental theory should: •integrate existing facts/observations •be both descriptive (what children are typically like at particular age) and explanatory (why these characteristics occur) •allow for testable hypotheses and findings should support theory describe & explain attempt rather than simply cataloguing Observable movement – three functional categories (grouped according to purpose) Fctnl categories vs. phases are tricky  know the difference •Stabilizing movement tasks – aim is to gain or maintain one’s balance/equilibrium in relation to gravity (standing) •Locomotor movement tasks – aim is to move the body through space and involving a change in location of the body (jumping) •Manipulative movement tasks – refers to fine and gross motor manipulation (e.g. throwing) Includes work with objects •Combination of the three (e.g. jumping rope) Phases of Motor Development (sequential) •Although there is individual difference, the process of motor development may be viewed as sequentially phase or stage-like •Life-long process of learning how to move with control, competence and efficiency in response to constantly changing environment •We note observable changes in
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