Class Notes (837,490)
Canada (510,274)
York University (35,409)
KINE 4010 (64)
David Hood (44)

Lung function during exercise This lecture is discussed about the lung function and its anatomy. It includes how the inspiration and expiration works during rest and exercise, hyperpnea, FRC, Eupnea, and epithelial cells. I have lecture notes from Septe

32 Pages
Unlock Document

Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 4010
David Hood

MIDTERM 1 Sept 15, 2010 Cardiovascular resp. system 1. Circulation - Transportation of energy and oxygen to muscle tissue - Transportation of waste products 2. Respiration - Intake of air into body - Diffusion and carbon dioxide at lungs and muscle tissue - Removal of carbon dioxide from body Metabolic system - Production of energy - Balance of energy intake and output for body composition and weight control Neuromuscular skeletal system - Locomotion (exercise) - Movement brought about by muscle contraction (under neural stimulation acting for bony levers of skeletal system) Inactive Canadians - #1 in New Brunswick - 63% - #2 in PEI 62% - #3 in Manitoba (Western province) 61% - Most active in BC which is 47% (lowest percentage of inactive people) Total cholesterol HDL (good)+ LDL (bad)+ VLDL (bad) Energy metabolism during Exercise - ATP => Adenine + Ribose (sugar)+ P~P~P (phosphate group attached to Ribose which is a high energy bond) - ADP => Adenine + Ribose + P~P - AMP => Adenine + Ribose + P - Adenosine = Ribose + Adenine. Vasal dilator - one P = 3 oxygen, one OH - Pi = inorganic phosphate when its not attached to ATP. When it becomes attached to ATP, becomes P - ATP is broken down by Myosin ATPase enzyme to ADP +Pi and uses that energy to catalyze muscles - ADP + Pi is then converted back to ATP by Energy Metabolism which is also called catabolism (break of down of large molecules such as fatty acids, glucose and sugars to help ATP levels constant to keep our muscles contracting) Energy Metabolism (time depended) 1. ATP-PC (Phosphate creatine) 2. Anaerobic Glycolysis without oxygen 3. Aerobic (Mitochondria) What happens during first seconds of exercise? - ATP demand for high and low intensity exercise. The demand for fuel is immediate which is based on either exercise is high intense or low intense. The higher the intensity, the higher the demand is - The job of metabolism and the 3 systems is to cover the demand with supply to complete the job - We supply the ATP by using the 3 systems so that demand is met - What is meant by time dependent? o the first system is simple which is one reaction. Its easier to turn it on and off. o the other 2 systems such as Glycolysis (13 reactions )and Aaerobic are increasingly complex. The bigger the pathway, the more sluggish it becomes to get it moving o the aerobic system takes longer than glycolysis since it has more reactions - ATP is broken down to ADPf (free) and Pi by Myosin ATPase - Then, Creatine Phosphokinase (CPK) immediately grabs ADPf as its building up and combines with PCr (Phosphocreatine) and reforms ATP and Creatine - ATP is only sufficient for few contractions What controls Myosin ATPase activity? Sept 20/22,10 Creatine supplements (e.g. 5g, taken 4 times/day x 3-5 days) - because creatine accumulates in muscle, dietary sources of creatine are muscle - it also accumulates in chicken or cow muscle - in order to get dietary supplement, should consume meat 1. represent a large dose, equivalent to 4 kg steak/day 2. is a large osmotic load when it enters cells - as creatine is taken, the concentration of creatine in blood goes up - createine is then taken up by muscle - in the muscle, is a transporter protein, that facilitates the transport of creatine in muscle - when molecules in the cell accumulate, then compensation (osmosis) starts to take place - as water moves in, muscle cells become bigger - if stop taking creatine, then it will reverse - water retention - adema 3. have no know side-effects yet 4. can increase PCr by 5-15% (variable, depending on the normal diet of the consumer) - the reason to take more creatine is to make more phosphocreatine - the changes in PCr are small - the normal source of creatine is meat - the magnitude of taking dietary supplements is less - if meat is not taken, then dietary supplements will have larger effect than taking them with meat 5. may have muscle anabolic effects; evidence for this is not yet strong 6. creatine is an amino acide analogue (combination of 2 amino acids and features of an amino acids), not a protein - Glut4 is responsible for transporting glucose in the cell. Glut4 is activated by insulin which stimulates the activity of glut 4 and facilitates the transporting glucose - AA transporter is fooled since creatine looks a lot like amino acid with amino acid analogue, so then it gets transported - AA transporter and glut4 transporter are stimulated by insulin. If glucose and creatine are taken together, then insulin is facilitated as well 7. PCr utilization and restoration improves with creatine ingestion - ingest with glucose - with creatine, its 110% and with creatine placebo, its 100% 8. performance improves in some studies - 30 sec. maximal cycling work improved 4% - Intervals (300,1000 m sprints) better times in the final (4 ) interval - Max. knee extensions (30 reps x 5 bouts) better performance in bouts 2,3,4 - Due to sparing PCr during ex + better resynthesis during recovery What about the other 2 systems of energy production? - ADPf activates all 3 systems of energy production. 1. Substrate for CPK (ATP-PC system) 2. Activator of PFK (glycolysis) 3. Its the rate-limiting substrate for mitochondrial respiration How does ADPf activate PFK (Phosphofructokinase)? - The end product is Pyruvic acid which can then either mitochondria or turn into lactic acid - It has 13 reactions - PFK catalyzes Fructose 6-P to Fructose 1,6, di P (the highway traffic example, rate limiting step) - Michaelis and Menton described the kinetic reaction (S->P) - How fast can we make P faster. As more substrate is added, the product forms faster until the substrates saturate the enzymes, and it no longer forms the product (plateau) - The maximum velocity of reaction (Vmax = plateau) - The strength of the interaction (affinity) - Km (substrate concentration). K = constant, m = Michaelin - If the enzyme is modified, higher interaction of the substrate - The lower the number of Km, the higher the strength of interaction between substrate and product - Allosteric activation of PFK results in a greater rate of product formation at any [F6P) -> higher rate of glycolysis - Higher affinity - ADPf changes the binding site of PFK, allowing better strength of F6P o Much tighter, faster product formation, stronger bond o Faster product form => higher rate of glycolysis. Faster ATP formation - Km is the property of the enzyme - The lower the Km, higher the affinity - Energy systems 1 and 2 take place in cytoplasm - The lactic acid production goes up - Every enzyme can be described by the kinetics in the body - Higher the substrate, the higher the velocity until it becomes saturated - Therefore, allosteric formation of PFK is important in ATP synthesis - Vmax will only change if all of a sudden we add more enzyme molecules - By adding more enzyme molecules is an adaptation to chronic exercise - Adaptation is turning on existing expression of gene and to make more mRNA and protein
More Less

Related notes for KINE 4010

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.