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KINE 4010 4 lecs

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York University
Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 4010
David Hood

Acute vs. chronic exercise Chronic is long term (repeated bouts of exercise, training which leads to an adaptation) and acute is one bout of exercise. Lecture #1 – Sept 7 th Start Pg 1 Course Kit Lecture 1 - Intro - Why study Ex phys? - Atp-PCR Pg 2 – Heart Disease Risk Factors (in yellow block on pg) - we use to talk about primary and secondary risk factors but now we talk about factors we can change (smoking, cholesterol, blood pressure, weight, physical inactivity, stress etc) and factors we cannot (ex/ race, gender, etc) - if you change the physical inactivity risk factor, you can change all the other ones  they may lose weight, cholesterol would decrease, would decrease their blood pressure - the hard part is convincing someone to do it and helping them understand WHY exercise is so good for you - Total cholesterol is composed of three different fractions of main cholesterols  HDLs, (good cholesterols, higher it is the better) LDLS (low density lipoprotein cholesterol) and VLDLs - Exercise elevates good cholesterols and lowers the bad cholesterols - 59% of US population is inactive – Pg 3- Globe and mail article Look at the 5 numbers. Last 2, resting heart rate and bmi Write next 2 calcs at end of pg: BMI = weight in Kg/ (height in meters)^2 Example: 80 kg/(1.8)^2 = 25 (176 lbs and 5’10”) 1 kg= 2.2 lbs 1m= 39” inches Pg 4- Canadian stats Pg 5- Frog muscle fact- refer to recording Lactic acid- byproduct of metabolism - useful because it allows gylcolytic pathway to continue on 1960 – 1980 - focus on sports and athletics - muscle biopsy technique came out and was a huge breakthrough, because can study metabolism of the muscle, fibre types, etc - really revolutionized exercise phys 1980-1990 - Cholestrol subfractionating became really important - Companies started thinking they should probably keep their employees fit 1990-present - listen to rec - we want to know what happens at the molecular level Pg 6- Energy Metabolism during Exercise - ATP Adenine- puring base – attached to sugar (ribose) which are attached to Phosphates - Don’t have to mem structure of inorganic phosphate, but we shorten it to Pi - Without any phosphates, the molecule is called Adenosine (it is a very potent vasodilator which helps blood flow to the muscle- we’ll learn abt it later) - Myosin ATPase breaks down the ATP to ADP and Pi – energy metabolism provides energy to resynthesize ATP 3 Systems for resynthesis of ATP 1) 2) 3) - another famous atpase is Sodium Potassium ATPase Pg 7 – The 3 systems have different rates of supply - the ATP- PCr covers the energy requirement needed at beginning – it is fastest because it is only one reaction - the other 2- Glycolysis and Aerobic eventually catch up and provide the energy after – they are slower because they have more reactions taking place ex/ Aerobic is 13 rxns ATP- PC System - Atp broken down by myosin atpase (activated by Ca+) to ADPf and Pi - Phosphocreatine decreases during exercise and creatine will increase - REVIEW THIS Recovery- to replenish phosphocreatine Creatine phosphokinase (CPK_ ATP+ creatine --------------------------------------- Phospopcreatine Lecture #2- Monday Sept 10 th Volunteers  Interviews: Tuesday 3:30-5 Wed 9-10 am – bring resume and list of grades Sept 19 2012 Lecture #6 – Absolute vs. Relative Workloads Review from pg 25 last class - knowing vo2 max has been achieved is plotting the steady state value at all the flat regions of the first graph vs. workloaf (to make the second graph) and when the second graph plateaus you have reached max vo2 - the yellow dots on the second graph are lactic acid values – the y axis is on the right side for lactic acid - resting lactic acid is 1 millimolar - when you exercise at low workloads it doesn’t increase very much but then you get to a point during exercise and it starts to get very hard and you start ventilating more etc. – at this point it starts to increase at a different rate (slope) - when you find the intersection of these two slopes it tells you how fit you are - How do we find % vo2 max? 2.6 / 4.0 * 100 = 65% - She is physically active but not well trained - 10 millimolar is the lactic acid concentration that is typically achieved when a subject has reached max vo2 pg 26. GET THIS PG FROM MOODLE – TOP PART IN BOOK IS DIFFERENT - vo2max is our best estimate of CV fitness - there is a direct way to calculate vo2max by using the FICK equation – refer to pg 26 for the equation - treat Q as the delivery of 02 and (a-v) as the extraction of the O2 - Ficks is very invasive so we measure indirectly using open circuit spirometry - MEMORIZE fick equation – Pg. 27 - general rule for untrained is their lactate threshold is between 50-60% vo2 max - general rule for trained is their lactate threshold is at 70-80% of vo2 max - because trained individuals rely less on glycolysis, they make less lactate and thus - cox people have low mitochondria use and thus cannot metabolize glucose OR fatty acids well….  dbl check - -we always have a mixture of fat and carb utilization during exercise and pfk deficient people cant use glucose well – they rely almost 90 percent on fatty acids – so when you can only use one substrate its very hard on body because body always uses a mixture of fatty acid and glucose energy supply pg 28- notes in book pg. 29 - Sept 21 – Lecture #7 – Important Training parameters Start- pg. 29 review Listen to beginning of this lec again- missed it Pg. 30 – on a kg per kg basis, the elephant 50000 ml/ 2000 kg = _______ Therefore sharapova is twice as fit as an elephant - comparative physiology - fat doesn’t consume more oxygen during exercise- fat doesn’t contibute to vo2max consumption - so the higher the ratio of lean muscle, the higher the vo2max - if you have a high fat to lean muscle ratio, you will have a low vo2 max pg 31 - leafs glad to be done vo2 – this slide is just for interest - pg. 32 - average value for males is 35-34 ml*kg^-1 * min^-1 - at the top end, for example cross country skier, its about double that – 77.7 – the top end is usually around 80 ml/kg/min - heart problems – why does that influence vo2? Because of the fick equation  vo2max= Q * (a-v)o2 - if you have a heart problem(heart disease, cardiac transplant) your vo2max will no doubt, be low - mitochondrial myopathy (ex/ cox) would affect vo2max because mitochondira will affect the (a-v)o2 part of the equation since the ability to extract is lowest - EXTREMELY LOW in mitochondrial myopathy patients – usually approximately 10 – almost like a normal persons resting metabolism - As you get older, your vo2max decreases - Absolute vs. relative – all of these people obviously have different aerobic fitness levels so we know that the absolute value doesn’t give u
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