Body Fat and its Distribution
Women are 10% higher in body fat than men due to pregnancy, so the fetus can thrive.
Nursing time women need enough to produce milk.
Makes women look more round.
Needing Less body fat
Endurance runner ▯ less body fat is batter.
If you have 5lbs more body fat than you need to carry that weight around.
Gymnastics ▯High strength to mass ratio
Diving ▯ Enter water like an arrow.
Fat Distribution (2 types)
1. Visceral (Guts / abdominal cavity)
2. Subcutaneous fat (under the skin , above the muscle)
Apple is central obesity/ fat is stored in abdominal cavity ▯ much higher risk
It occurs when you increase fat in aging process. More likely in men
Women will tend to have subcutaneous obesity. Lesser health risk. Pear shaped more fat
Central obesity risks
increase coronary heart diseases, cancer, respitory difficulties, blood profiles change,
greater risk of illness (morbidity)and mortality
Diaphragm cannot contract, difficulty breathing
You become more curve, grow towards forward. Higher center of gravity. People
become prisoner in their body.
A Cluster of Metabolic Abnormalities
Small dense LDL ( increase coronary heart disease risk) Low HDL ( good cholesterol is removed)
Waist is larger it may be due to central obesity
Indicator of fat distribution & central obesity
Women: greater than 35 inch
Men : greater than 40 inch
If waist part is bigger than hips than it should indicate your getting fat.
More Precise Measures
Skinfold measures (least precise) ▯Doesn’t work in obese indvi. The skin is stretched
and when you put caliper on it doesn’t hold.
Inaccurate measurement for obese people
Hydrodensitometry measures body density by weighing the person first on land and
then again while submerged in water
Bioelectrical impedance electrical current will transferred much quicker in bones
/lean tissue and in water as compared to fat. Do the differential equation
Displacement Plesthysmography:Weight and height is used. Do a certain
displacement of vol of air. Then you can detect how much air is based upon body fat
as compared to lean tissues.
Most precise is DEXA (Dual energy xray absorptiometry) Two xrays go through
the body, at low rad level.
The normal weight scale could be misleading when weighing weight.
Subjective assessments are better.
Ruler Test ▯ place a ruler from sternum to pelvic girdle, if there is a fulcrum you have
central abdominal obesity
Visual Test ▯take off all clothing, stand in front of a mirror Jump Test ▯ if you jump and all parts are moving in different directions then you
know its unnecessary fat.
As BMI goes up, or very low there are consequences.
BMI goes up mostly because you have incre