C is the correct option. Because VIT C is for hydroxyl proline not PROLINE.
Nutrients for Bone Health
Two components; inorganic (minerals 65%) and organic (collagen 35%)
Collagen is needed for mineral deposit.
Bone Mineral Density (how much minerals you have relative to your bone mass)
You can determine that by using DEXA ( doesn’t measure blood concentration of Ca,
only the extent to which your bone are mineralized and their strength)
Two types of bone
Cortical Bone: forms outer walls of larger bones; responsible for strength
Trabecular bone: less dense; lacy structure;
If a person doesn’t consume enough Calcium in diet, the Calcium from trabecular bones
will be released to make sure the Calcium level in blood doesn’t fall below acceptable
Bones are metabolically very active. Doesn’t mean that person of 40 or 50 will not be
One factors that determine strength, mineral density is Genetics
Conception to teen years
Girls 14 years Boys 17 years for boys (Bones are the strongest, peak in bone mass) Bone Remodeling
Physical activity ▯Bones adapt to what you are doing
If you are going to bed, with 6pm at night. There is not much calcium coming from your
diet. The calcium will be drawn from bones, and then in morning you can put back
calcium in morning with diet.
Bone remolding ▯Osteoclast (chew the bones, break them)
Osteoblast (Bone building)
Osteocytes ▯They develop from Osteoblast.
Osteoblast become part of the bone ▯this is referred to as Osteocytes
Osteoclast (breaking bones) is higher in older individuals as compared to osteoblast.
Calcium, Ca (inorganic component ▯ minerals such as Ca)
Amount of Ca in our body is 40% of all the minerals that we have.
1.5%2% of our body weight is Calcium
About 99% of calcium is in bone and teeth and 1% blood,intestinal tissue,
Calcium in blood exists as Ion (Ca 2+)
If person doesn’t consume enough calcium in diet, calcium concentration in blood would
not fall down, as the body keeps it to make the level required .
The Calcium from bone and teeth can be then used to transfer to the blood.
Most of Calcium in Bones is Hydroxyapatite.
Ca ▯ found in body fluids, some activiates specific enzyme in our body.
Ca activates Calmoudlin ▯important for breaking glycogen in the body, you need
Ca 2+(ionized calcium) ▯ involved in muscle contraction , nerve transmition,
This is the reason why the blood would not allow level of Cal fall below acceptable.
DASH diet is not too good ▯ has too much sodium DASH is good but should also have low sodium diet included.
Hormones like parathyroid hormone, calcitonin and VITAMIN D prevent the blood
from having a low or high Calcium le